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Table 2 The theoretical lipid yield and related flux data of different carbon sources with various modifications by L. starkeyi

From: A metabolic model of Lipomyces starkeyi for predicting lipogenesis potential from diverse low-cost substrates

Target modification Theoretical lipid yield The source of NADH (mmol) The source of NADPH (mmol) Demand of ATP (mmol) Acetyl-CoA production (mmol) The carbon loss distribution (C-mol/C-mol, %)
(C-mol/C-mol) (g/g) Glycolysis TCA Others PPP NADH Others PPP Glycolysis/
Gluconeogenesis
TCA
Glucose
Original model 0.524 0.273 29.71 0 0 27.43 0 63.62 14.86 22.86 24.76 0
NADP-dependent GAPDH 0.598 0.311 16.96 0 0 14.35 16.96d 71.86 16.96 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ALD 0.598 0.311 16.96 0 0 14.35 16.96e 71.86 16.96 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ME 0.602 0.313 34.15 0 0 13.62 17.89a 0 73.13 17.07 11.36 28.45 0
Transhydrogenases 0.643 0.335 38.60 2.11 0 0 32.62b 1.06f 59.71 18.24 0 32.16 3.52
Reversible ICDHxm 0.643 0.335 38.60 2.11 0 0 32.62c 1.06f 59.71 18.24 0 32.16 3.52
Cellobiose
Original model 0.524 0.287 59.43 0 0 54.86 0 121.90 29.71 22.86 24.76 0
NADP-dependent GAPDH 0.598 0.327 33.92 0 0 28.70 33.91d 138.38 33.91 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ALD 0.598 0.327 33.92 0 0 28.70 33.91e 138.38 33.91 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ME 0.606 0.332 68.73 0 0 25.88 37.56a 0 143.35 34.36 10.78 28.64 0
Transhydrogenases 0.649 0.355 77.17 3.59 0 0 66.13b 1.79f 114.67 36.79 0 32.15 2.99
Reversible ICDHxm 0.649 0.355 77.17 3.59 0 0 66.13c 1.79f 114.67 36.79 0 32.15 2.99
Xylose
Original model 0.471 0.245 22.29 0 10 g 30.57 0 49.05 11.14 30.57 22.29 0
NADP-dependent GAPDH 0.538 0.280 12.72 0 10 g 20.76 12.72d 55.22 12.72 20.76 25.43 0
NADP-dependent ALD 0.538 0.280 12.72 0 10 g 20.76 12.72e 55.22 12.72 20.76 25.43 0
NADP-dependent ME 0.583 0.303 27.56 0 10 g 14.15 21.29a 0 66.90 13.78 14.15 27.56 0
Transhydrogenases 0.641 0.334 32.17 1.87 10 g 0 37.03b 0.93f 50.55 15.15 0 32.17 3.74
Reversible ICDHxm 0.641 0.334 32.17 1.87 10 g 0 37.03c 0.93f 50.55 15.15 0 32.17 3.74
Glycerol
Original model 0.524 0.267 14.86 0 0 13.71 0 36.76 7.43 22.86 24.76 0
NADP-dependent GAPDH 0.598 0.304 8.48 0 0 7.17 8.48d 39.79 8.48 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ALD 0.598 0.304 8.48 0 0 7.17 8.48e 39.79 8.48 11.96 28.26 0
NADP-dependent ME 0.637 0.324 18.07 0 0 3.72 12.96a 0 45.31 9.03 6.20 30.11 0
Transhydrogenases 0.679 0.346 19.26 0 0 0 17.78b 0 37.41 9.63 0 32.10 0
Reversible ICDHxm 0.679 0.346 19.26 0 0 0 17.78c 0 37.41 9.63 0 32.10 0
Acetic acid
Original model 0.470 0.245 0 9.27 0 4.49 3.71f 31.11 4.45 11.24 4.60 37.14
NADP-dependent GAPDH 0.465 0.242 0 8.85 0 6.05 3.25f 32.18 4.40 15.13 5.89 32.46
NADP-dependent ALD 0.470 0.245 0 9.27 0 4.49 3.71f 31.11 4.45 11.24 4.60 37.14
NADP-dependent ME 0.470 0.245 0 9.27 0 4.49 0 3.71f 31.11 4.45 11.24 4.60 37.14
Transhydrogenases 0.485 0.252 0 10.48 0 0 3.40b 5.06f 29.74 4.58 0 0.88 50.63
Reversible ICDHxm 0.485 0.252 0 10.48 0 0 3.40c 5.06f 29.74 4.58 0 0.88 50.63
  1. aThe conversion of NADH to NADPH was mediated by NADP-dependent ME
  2. b, cThe conversion of NADH to NADPH was mediated by transhydrogenase and the reversible ICDHxm, respectively
  3. d, eNADPH was generated from the reactions catalyzed by NADP-dependent GAPD and NADP-dependent ALD, respectively
  4. fNADPH was generated from the reaction catalyzed by the cytoplasmic NADP-dependent ICDHyr
  5. gNADH was generated from the reaction catalyzed by xylitol dehydrogenase
  6. NADPH could not be derived from NADH