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Table 5 CP/MAS and VCT 13C NMR analysis of raw and pretreated CWR

From: Evaluating polymer interplay after hot water pretreatment to investigate maize stem internode recalcitrance

  Raw maize stem 20-min HWP 40-min HWP
  M7 M9 M7 M9 M7 M9
Crystallinity (%) 28 (± 2) 31 (± 1) 32 (± 1) 34 (± 2) 39 (± 1) 41 (± 1)
LFD (nm) 2.4 (± 0.1) 2.6 (± 0.1) 2.6 (± 0.1) 2.7 (± 0.1) 3.0 (± 0.1) 3.1 (± 0.1)
LFAD (nm) 25 (± 3) 27 (± 3) 39 (± 5) 31 (± 9) 37 (± 5) 74 (± 4)
Estimated β–O–4 bonds (%) 48 (± 1) 49 (± 2) 40 (± 3) 43 (± 1) 36 (± 1) 32 (± 2)
\({T}_{1\rho }^{H}\) (ms) 18 (± 0) 22 (± 3) 33 (± 3) 37 (± 6) 45 (± 6) 50 (± 9)
\({T}_{HH}\) (µs) 416 (± 32) 396 (± 61) 450 (± 73) 458 (± 100) 671 (± 121) 597 (± 122)
  1. Lateral fibre dimension (LFD), lateral fibre aggregate dimension (LFAD), spin–lattice (proton relaxation) in the rotating frame (\({T}_{1\rho }^{H}\)) and time of spin diffusion (\({T}_{HH}\)). The analysis was conducted on rehydrated CWR (20% w/w) and the results are expressed as means of three repetitions with standard deviation in brackets