Skip to main content

Table 3 Effect of citrate–phosphate buffer and sodium tetraborate addition on model compound sugars (glucose 0.5 wt. % and fructose 2.1 wt. %) conversion to HMF (Reaction conditions: 150 °C, 60 min)

From: Conversion of organosolv pretreated hardwood biomass into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by combining enzymatic hydrolysis and isomerization with homogeneous catalysis

Solvent Additive Sugars conversion (%)# HMF Selectivity (%)# Yield (%)#
HMF Glycolic acid Formic acid Levulinic acid
dH2O Borax*, NaOH 99.6 0.1 0.1 0.9 2.2 1.5
Buffer citrate–phosphate (5 mM) NaOH 23.1 30.2 7.0 0.2 0.2 0.1
Buffer citrate- phosphate (5 mM) Borax*, NaOH 95.4 0.1 0.1 1.0 2.3 1.5
  1. All experiments were run in duplicates and numbers represent the mean values
  2. *sodium tetraborate decahydrate
  3. #Standard error deviation was ≤ 2.5% in all measurements