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Table 4 Catalyst evaluation for HMF synthesis from sugars (glucose 0.5 wt.% and fructose 2.1 wt. %), in the liquid product after isomerization (Reaction conditions: 150 °C, 60 min)

From: Conversion of organosolv pretreated hardwood biomass into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by combining enzymatic hydrolysis and isomerization with homogeneous catalysis

Catalyst (final concentration wt. %)# Sugars conversion (%)# HMF yield (%)# HMF selectivity (%)#
HCl (0.7%) 76.1 36.3 47.7
H3PO4 (3.0%) 83.1 43.7 52.6
Formic acid (3.5%) 79.9 44.6 55.8
Maleic acid (3.0%) 75.4 41.8 55.5
H-mordenite (2.6%) 97.6 1.4 1.4
  1. All experiments were run in duplicates and numbers represent the mean values
  2. #Standard error deviation was ≤ 2.5% in all measurements