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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 1

From: Combinatorial use of environmental stresses and genetic engineering to increase ethanol titres in cyanobacteria

Fig. 1

Native and engineered routes from carbon dioxide to ethanol in Synechocystis. Additional pathways are shown that provide flux through pyruvate. The pathway in red is the engineered ethanologenic route from Zymomonas mobilis. Pathway intermediates: GAP, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; OAA, oxaloacetate; 2-OG, α-ketoglutarate; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; 2-PGA, 2-phosphoglycerate; 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; PHB, polyhydroxybutyrate; RuBP, ribulose bisphosphate. Enzymes/genes: acc, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; acs, acetyl-CoA-synthase; ackA, acetate kinase; adh, alcohol dehydrogenase; aldDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; eno, enolase; ldh, lactate dehydrogenase; me, malic enzyme; Pdc: pyruvate decarboxylase; pdh, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; pepck, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; pgm, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase; phaA, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; phaB, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase; PhaC/E, poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) polymerase; ppc, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; pps, phosphoenolpyruvate synthase; pta, phosphate acetyltransferase; pyk, pyruvate kinase; RuBisCO, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Lactate and ethanol are both readily secreted by Synechocystis.j

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