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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts

Fig. 1

From: Bottom-up synthetic ecology study of microbial consortia to enhance lignocellulose bioconversion

Fig. 1

The structure of lignin and microbial mediated lignin bioconversion. Lignin is the most recalcitrant component of lignocellulose. It’s composed of G, S, and H phenylpropanoid constitutes, which are linked by five linkage types. These common linkages are cleaved by lignolytic enzymes (e.g., laccases, peroxidases, and redox accessory enzymes) for lignin depolymerization. Subsequently, aromatic compounds from G-, H-, and S-type lignin are degraded via microbial funnel pathways to generate the key intermediate aromatic compounds protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate. These intermediates are further catabolized to synthesize value-added bioproducts e.g., polyamide and nylon. Alternatively, they enter TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism for PHA or lipid synthesis

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