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Table 2 Limonene titer in engineered microorganisms

From: Metabolic engineering of Ashbya gossypii for limonene production from xylose

Organism Carbon source; culture mode Limonene synthase Relevant modifications Titer (mg/L) Refs.
E. coli Glycerol; bioreactor; fed-batch Mentha spicata, codon-optimized, truncated Plasmid for gene overexpression of: atoB and idi from E. coli; ERG13, tHMG1, ERG12, ERG8 and ERG19 from S. cerevisiae; and tGPPS from Abies grandis 3630 [43]
E. coli Glucose; shake flask; fed-batch M. spicata, codon-optimized MvaE and MvaSA110G from Enterococcus faecalis with synthetic RBS; MVK (ERG12) from Methanosarcina mazei; ERG8, ERG19 and IDI1 from S. cerevisiae; and tNDPS1 from S. lycopersicum 1290 [44]
E. coli Glycerol; bioreactor; fed-batch M. spicata, codon-optimized, truncated atoB from E. coli; ERG13, tHMG1, ERG12, ERG8, ERG19 and IDI1 from S. cerevisiae; and tGPPS from A. grandis 1350 [45]
S. cerevisiae Glucose and ethanol; shake flask, fed-batch C. limon, codon-optimized, truncated tHMG1, IDI1, tNDPS1 from S. lycopersicum; and ERG20F96W−N127W 917.7 [32]
S. cerevisiae Galactose:raffinose (2:1); shake flask; semi-batch C. limon, mutant H570Y HMG2K6R, gene fusion ERG20N127W-SlNDPS1 166 [34]
Y. lipolytica Glucose; shake flask A. rugosa, codon-optimized, truncated HMG1, ERG12, and tNDPS1 from S. lycopersicum 23.56 [28]
Y. lipolytica Glycerol and citrate; bioreactor; fed-batch Agastache rugosa, codon-optimized, truncated HMG1, ERG12, tNDPS1 from S. lycopersicum 165.3 [46]
Y. lipolytica Glucose; bioreactor; fed-batch C. limon or M. spicata HMG1. Optimization of fermentation conditions D-limonene:11.7; L-limonene:11.08 [26]