Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF)
© Almeida et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 06 March 2008
Accepted: 11 June 2008
Published: 11 June 2008
Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR) has been used to design Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to ferment xylose. One example is the industrial S. cerevisiae xylose-consuming strain TMB3400, which was constructed by expression of P. stipitis xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase and overexpression of endogenous xylulose kinase in the industrial S. cerevisiae strain USM21.
In this study, we demonstrate that strain TMB3400 not only converts xylose, but also displays higher tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate during anaerobic batch fermentation as well as 3 times higher in vitro HMF and furfural reduction activity than the control strain USM21. Using laboratory strains producing various levels of Ps-XR, we confirm that Ps-XR is able to reduce HMF both in vitro and in vivo. Ps-XR overexpression increases the in vivo HMF conversion rate by approximately 20%, thereby improving yeast tolerance towards HMF. Further purification of Ps-XR shows that HMF is a substrate inhibitor of the enzyme.
We demonstrate for the first time that xylose reductase is also able to reduce the furaldehyde compounds that are present in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Possible implications of this newly characterized activity of Ps-XR on lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation are discussed.
Commercial production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by yeast requires strains that (i) can ferment all sugars, both hexose and pentose sugars, in the hydroysate, and (ii) show sufficient tolerance to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate [1, 2]. Xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been constructed by heterologous overexpression of xylose isomerase (XI) or xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase (XR/XDH) pathways (reviewed in ). While in the XI pathway, xylose is directly converted to xylulose, in the XR/XDH pathway xylose is initially reduced to xylitol by XR, and then xylitol is oxidized to xylulose by XDH. So far, efficient fermentation of xylose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates has been demonstrated for industrial S. cerevisiae strains carrying the XR/XDH pathway only [4–8].
In addition to hexoses and pentoses, the lignocellulosic hydrolysates may contain phenolic derivatives, acetic acid and the furaldehydes furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) that inhibit yeast fermentation [2, 9, 10]. The effect on the metabolism in S. cerevisiae and the possible mechanisms conferring tolerance varies according to the nature of the inhibiting compound. For instance, tolerance to acetic acid is obtained by increasing ATPase activity, which pumps protons out of the cytoplasm , whereas tolerance towards furaldehydes and some phenolic derivatives is obtained by reduction of these compounds to less toxic alcohols [12–15]. Recently, a strong correlation between fermentation performances of S. cerevisiae strains in lignocellulosic hydrolysate and their ability to reduce HMF and furfural to furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM) and 2-furanmethanol (FM) has been highlighted [13, 16–18]. Up to now, two S. cerevisiae enzymes, the alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (ADH6) and an alcohol dehydrogenase 1 mutant (mut-ADH1) have been identified as enzymes responsible for the reduction of HMF and furfural in S. cerevisiae [12, 19]. Overexpression of such enzymes in S. cerevisiae resulted in increased tolerance towards HMF and lignocellulosic hydrolysates [12, 18, 19].
The industrial xylose-fermenting strain TMB3400 was constructed by integration of Pichia stipitis XR/XDH pathway in the genome of USM21 followed by random mutagenesis . In the current study, the fermentation performance of TMB3400 was compared with the parental strain USM21 in dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. The difference between the strains prompted us to investigate the putative role of P. stipitis XR (Ps-XR) in the response to furaldehyde inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo Ps-XR activity towards HMF was investigated in strains expressing Ps-XR at different levels and the kinetic properties of purified Ps-XR were also determined.
Fermentation performance of TMB3400 and USM21 in spruce hydrolysate
TMB3400 and USM21 reduction ability
In vitro HMF and furfural reduction by Ps-XR
In vivo HMF and furfural reduction by Ps-XR
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the study.
Polyploid industrial strain
USM21 (his3:: YipXR/XDH/XK) + random mutagenesis – produces XR, XDH, XK
Laboratory strain MATa his3-Δ1 MAL2-8c SUC2
CEN.PK 113-7A (MATa his3-Δ1 MAL2-8c SUC2) his3::YipXDH/XK – produces XDH, XK
CEN.PK 113-7A (MATa his3-Δ1 MAL2-8c SUC2) his3::YipXR/XDH/XK – produces XR, XDH, XK
TMB3001 PGK1p-XYL1 – Overproduces XR
Specific growth rate and HMF consumption rate for strains growing aerobically on glucose mineral medium supplemented or not with 2 g/L HMF.
0.36 ± 0.01
0.20 ± 0.00
0.36 ± 0.02
0.37 ± 0.00
0.20 ± 0.00
0.37 ± 0.02
0.36 ± 0.00
0.23 ± 0.01
0.45 ± 0.03
XR purification and kinetic characterization
Purification of Pichia stipitis XR from strain TMB3260 grown in defined mineral medium supplemented with glucose.
Amount Protein (mg)
Total Activity (U)
Specific Activity (U/mg)
An inhibition coefficient (Ki) equal to 95.0 and a hill coefficient (n) = 3.51 were obtained in the calculations for the model best fit The apparent Km and Vmax with HMF as substrate were 40 mM and 0.37 μmol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The proportion of variance (R2 = 0.95) given by the model indicated a good fit to the experimental data (Fig. 5).
S. cerevisiae NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (ADH6) and NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase 1 mutant (mut-ADH1) have previously been identified as reductases able to reduce HMF, both in vitro and in vivo [12, 19]. In this work, we demonstrate that P. stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR) can perform the same reaction using either NADH or NADPH. P. stipitis XYL1 gene encoding Ps-XR was the first XR gene to be efficiently expressed in S. cerevisiae [25–27] and Ps-XR was purified and the kinetic properties were determined for a wide range of substrates [21–23]. However, XR activity towards lignocellulosic inhibitors has never previously been reported.
As for ADH6 or mut-ADH1 [12, 18, 19], overexpression of Ps-XR in laboratory strains increased tolerance towards HMF and improved growth in the presence of the inhibitor. However, in contrast with ADH6 and mut-ADH1, Ps-XR could use both NADH and NADPH in HMF reduction, which may be favorable since strict use of NADH or NADPH by the alcohol dehydrogenases appear to change product distribution in defined mineral medium .
Despite higher in vitro HMF reduction activity for the laboratory strain TMB3001 than for the industrial strain TMB 3400, in vivo improvement of HMF conversion rate in laboratory strains was only evident with the highest Ps-XR activity (strain TMB3260). Variation in the HMF conversion rate and fermentation performance among the industrial and laboratory strains might be related with the experimental conditions. The industrial strains were evaluated under anaerobic conditions in hydrolysate containing media whereas the laboratory strains were tested under aerobic conditions in defined mineral medium supplemented with HMF. The industrial strains were exposed simultaneously to HMF, furfural, acetic acid and phenolic derivatives, which can have synergistic inhibitory effects on yeast . Therefore the in vivo advantage given by Ps-XR may have been more easily distinguishable in TMB3400 than in the laboratory strains because the industrial strains were dealing and converting different compounds concurrently, with resulting low HMF reduction rate. The higher background for HMF and furfural reduction activities in the control strains might also have contributed to the absence of in vivo improvement of the laboratory strain with low Ps-XR level (TMB3001). The control strain USM21 had total furaldehyde reduction activity 3.5 times lower than the control TMB3290 (~270 mU/mg protein and ~940 mU/mg protein).
A possible role of Ps-XR in the in vivo conversion of other compounds like furfural and phenolics derivatives cannot be excluded. For instance, the in vitro Ps-XR ability to reduce furfuralwas demonstrated, but strains overexpressing this enzyme did not show any significant improvement in the fermentation performance in the presence of this inhibitor.
As demonstrated by kinetics studies, HMF inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 126.96.36.199), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 188.8.131.52) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities in vitro . In our study, we demonstrated that HMF was also a substrate-inhibitor of Ps-XR, although the strongest inhibitory effects appeared when concentrations above 60 mM HMF were used. Considering that HMF concentrations in different hydrolysates vary between 10 mM and 40 mM, the HMF inhibition effects on Ps-XR are most probably not present in vivo. However, further studies may be required to analyze the in vivo Ps-XR response to HMF and the intracellular HMF level in yeast.
We demonstrate for the first time that Ps-XR has furaldehyde reduction abilities, which helps S. cerevisiae detoxifying spruce hydrolysate. These results indicate a possible advantage in using XR instead of XI pathway for the construction of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains to be used in hydrolysates with high HMF content.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in this work are listed in Table 1. The strains were maintained on agar plates containing yeast nitrogen base medium (YNB) (Difco YNB without amino acids 6.7 g/L) and 20 g/L glucose.
Fermentation in spruce hydrolysate
The growth medium in inoculum cultures was a defined medium according to . The hydrolysate used was produced from forest residue originating mainly from spruce in a two-stage dilute-acid hydrolysis process using sulphuric acid as the catalyst . The composition of the hydrolysate was 24.3 g/l glucose, 12.1 g/l mannose, 2.9 g/l galactose, 5.6 g/l xylose, 1.4 g/l arabinose, 2.0 g/l acetic acid, 1.9 g/l HMF, and 0.5 g/l furfural. Adjustment of the hydrolysate to pH 5 with 6 M NaOH was made prior to use.
The inoculum cultures were grown in 300 ml cotton plugged shake-flasks containing 100 ml media supplemented with 15 g/l glucose in a rotary shaker at 160 rpm and at 30°C for 24 h. Batch fermentations were inoculated with 6 ml of the preculture and carried out in Belach BR 0.5 fermentors (Belach Bioteknik AB, Solna, Sweden). Initial concentrations of medium components were 2.67 times higher compared to the inoculum cultures in order to compensate for the dilution. The batch fermentations were started by growing cells on 30 g of glucose in an initial working volume of 300 mL. Next, a single addition of 300 ml of hydrolysate was made when growth reached mid/late exponential phase, which corresponded to a biomass concentration of approximately 2.5 g/l in the reactor. The stirrer speed and the temperature were 600 rpm and 30°C, respectively. The pH was kept constant at 5.0 by addition of 0.75 NaOH. Anaerobic conditions were obtained by continuously sparging the fermentor with 0.3 L/min nitrogen gas, which was controlled by a mass flow meter (Bronkhurst Hi-Tec, Ruurlo, The Netherlands).
In vivo HMF and furfural reduction by Ps-XR
Inoculum cultures were grown overnight at 30°C in 250 mL cotton plugged shake-flasks with 25 mL of double-concentrated defined mineral medium (46) supplemented with 40 g L-1 glucose and 200 ml L-1 phthalate buffer (10.2 g/L medium KH phthalate, 2.2 g/l medium KOH). The same media was used in the growth curves, except for the addition of 2 g/l HMF where indicated. Growth curves were started at OD620 0.5 and were carried out in 100 mL media at 30°C in 1 L cotton plugged shake-flasks. The stirring rate was 200 rpm. Samples for biomass measurements were withdrawn regularly.
Biomass and metabolites
Cell concentration was determined from absorbance measurements at 610 nm and dry-weight measurements were made from duplicate 10 ml samples, which were centrifuged, washed with distilled water and dried for 24 h at 105°C. The biomass concentration was correlated with OD by the dry weight measurements. The metabolite samples were immediately centrifuged, filtered through 0.2 μm filters and stored at -20°C until analysis. The concentrations of ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid were analyzed using HPLC system (Waters, Milford, Massachusetts, USA) equipped with Aminex HPX-87H column (Bio-Rad, Hercules, California) at 45°C. The mobile phase was 5 mM sulphuric acid with a flow of 0.6 ml/min. The concentrations of glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, HMF and furfural were measured on an Aminex HPX-87P column (Bio-Rad, USA) at 85°C, eluted with ultra-pure water at 0.6 ml/min. All compounds were detected with a refractive index detector, except for HMF and furfural which were detected with a UV-detector (210 nm). The carbon dioxide evolution rate was monitored on-line by measuring the concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the outgoing gas from the reactor with a CP460 gas analyser (Belach Bioteknik AB, Solna, Sweden). The gas analyzer was calibrated using a gas containing 20% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide.
Enzymatic activity measurements
Cell extracts were prepared with Y-PER reagent following the recommendations of the supplier (Pierce, Rockford, IL). The protein content in the cell free preparation was determined using Micro BCA Protein Assay Kit (Pierce). XR activity was measured in cell free extracts based on . The reaction mixture contained 115 μM NAD(P)H and the reaction was started by adding 350 mM xylose in 100 mM Triethanolamine buffer (pH 7.0). Reductions of HMF and furfural reduction were measured as described in . The reactions were performed in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) (50 mM KH2PO4 and 50 mM K2HPO4) and NAD(P)H was added to a concentration of 100 μM. The reaction was started by addition of 10 mM HMF or furfural. All assays were performed at 30°C and the oxidation of NAD(P)H was followed as the change in absorbance at 340 nm.
Xylose reductase purification
Cells of TMB3260 from aerobic batch fermentation in 1.5 L defined medium  supplemented with 40 g glucose were used as starting material for the purification of XR. Once the culture reached early-stationary phase, the cells were harvested and used for Ps-XR purification following the protocol described in . All purification steps were carried out at 4°C, and 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol was added in all buffers to stabilize the enzyme activities. After each purification-step the enzyme activity of the different fractions were measured and the purification was proofed by SDS-gel-electrophoresis.
The kinetic constants for Ps-XR were determined using different substrates and NADPH as cofactor. The kinetic parameters Vmax (μmol min-1 mg protein-1) and the Michaelis-Menten constant Km (mM) were estimated using non-liner regression analysis. The non-linear least-squares statistic tool from Microsoft-Excel (Microsoft) was used to parameter fitting. Typically, duplicate measurements at 10 different substrate concentrations spanning the Km value were used.
Construction of TMB3290
Plasmid YIpXRXDHXK  containing the overexpression cassettes for XR and XDH from P. stipitis and xylulokinase from S. cerevisiae was cut with Bam HI. The restriction generated 3 fragments: 1.5 Kb XR cassette, 1.0 Kb HIS3 gene and the 12 Kb remaining plasmid. The HIS3 gene was re-ligated into the plasmid and used to transform DH5α Escherichia coli cells. The final plasmid YIpXDHXK, which does not express XR was used to transform S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7A. The positive clones were selected by growth in YNB media without amino acids and the strain was named TMB3290.
This work was sponsored by the Swedish Energy Administration and the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
- Hahn-Hägerdal B, Karhumaa K, Fonseca C, Spencer-Martins I, Gorwa-Grauslund MF: Towards industrial pentose-fermenting yeast strains. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2007, 74: 937-953. 10.1007/s00253-006-0827-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Almeida JRM, Modig T, Petersson A, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Lidén G, Gorwa-Grauslund MF: Increased tolerance and conversion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 2007, 82: 340-349. 10.1002/jctb.1676View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chu BC, Lee H: Genetic improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for xylose fermentation. Biotechnol Adv 2007.Google Scholar
- Öhgren K, Bengtsson O, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Galbe M, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Zacchi G: Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of glucose and xylose in steam-pretreated corn stover at high fiber content with Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400. J Biotechnol 2006, 126: 488-98. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.05.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Olsson L, Soerensen HR, Dam BP, Christensen H, Krogh KM, Meyer AS: Separate and simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat hemicellulose with recombinant xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2006, 129–132: 117-129. 10.1385/ABAB:129:1:117View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sedlak M, Ho NW: Production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass hydrolysates using genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast capable of cofermenting glucose and xylose. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2004, 113–116: 403-416. 10.1385/ABAB:114:1-3:403View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hahn-Hägerdal B, Pamment N: Microbial pentose metabolism. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2004, 113–116: 1207-1209. 10.1385/ABAB:116:1-3:1207View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Katahira S, Mizuike A, Fukuda H, Kondo A: Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by a recombinant xylose- and cellooligosaccharide-assimilating yeast strain. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006, 72: 1136-1143. 10.1007/s00253-006-0402-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Palmqvist E, Hahn-Hägerdal B: Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Bioresource Technology 2000, 74: 25-33. 10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00161-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klinke HB, Thomsen AB, Ahring BK: Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2004, 66: 10-26. 10.1007/s00253-004-1642-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Verduyn C, Postma E, Scheffers WA, Van Dijken JP: Effect of benzoic acid on metabolic fluxes in yeasts: a continuous-culture study on the regulation of respiration and alcoholic fermentation. Yeast 1992, 8: 501-517. 10.1002/yea.320080703View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Petersson A, Almeida JRM, Modig T, Karhumaa K, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Liden G: A 5-hydroxymethyl furfural reducing enzyme encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH6 gene conveys HMF tolerance. Yeast 2006, 23: 455-464. 10.1002/yea.1370View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu ZL, Slininger PJ, Dien BS, Berhow MA, Kurtzman CP, Gorsich SW: Adaptive response of yeasts to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and new chemical evidence for HMF conversion to 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2004, 31: 345-352.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larsson S, Nilvebrant NO, Jonsson LJ: Effect of overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pad1p on the resistance to phenylacrylic acids and lignocellulose hydrolysates under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001, 57: 167-174.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larsson S, Cassland P, Jonsson LJ: Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates by heterologous expression of laccase. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001, 67: 1163-1170. 10.1128/AEM.67.3.1163-1170.2001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Modig T, Almeida JRM, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Liden G: Variability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain response to lignocellulose hydrolysate. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2008. 10.1002/bit.21789Google Scholar
- Nilsson A, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Liden G: Cofactor dependence in furan reduction by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation of acid-hydrolyzed lignocellulose. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005, 71: 7866-7871. 10.1128/AEM.71.12.7866-7871.2005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Almeida JRM, Röder A, Modig T, Laadan B, Lidén G, Gorwa-Grauslund MF: NADH- vs. NADPH-coupled reduction of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) and its implications on product distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2008,78(6):939-45. 101007/s00253-008-1364View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laadan B, Almeida JR, Radstrom P, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Gorwa-Grauslund M: Identification of an NADH-dependent 5-hydroxymethylfurfural-reducing alcohol dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 2008, 25: 191-198. 10.1002/yea.1578View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wahlbom CF, van Zyl WH, Jonsson LJ, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Otero RR: Generation of the improved recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3400 by random mutagenesis and physiological comparison with Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. FEMS Yeast Res 2003, 3: 319-326. 10.1016/S1567-1356(02)00206-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Verduyn C, Van Kleef R, Frank J, Schreuder H, Van Dijken JP, Scheffers WA: Properties of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. Biochem J 1985, 226: 669-677.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeppsson M, Traff K, Johansson B, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Gorwa-Grauslund MF: Effect of enhanced xylose reductase activity on xylose consumption and product distribution in xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 2003, 3: 167-175. 10.1016/S1567-1356(02)00186-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rizzi M, Erlemann P, Bui-Thanh N-A, Dellweg H: Xylose fermentation by yeasts. 4. Purification and kinetic studies of xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis . Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1988, 29: 148-154.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eisenthal R: Enzyme Assays: A Practical Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1992.Google Scholar
- Amore R, Kotter P, Kuster C, Ciriacy M, Hollenberg CP: Cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase-encoding gene (XYL1) from the xylose-assimilating yeast Pichia stipitis. Gene 1991, 109: 89-97. 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90592-YView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hallborn J, Walfridsson M, Airaksinen U, Ojamo H, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Penttila M, Kerasnen S: Xylitol production by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnology (N Y) 1991, 9: 1090-1095. 10.1038/nbt1191-1090View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takuma S, Nakashima N, Tantirungkij M, Kinoshita S, Okada H, Seki T, Yoshida T: Isolation of xylose reductase gene of Pichia stipitis and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 1991, 28–29: 327-340. 10.1007/BF02922612View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taherzadeh MJ, Gustafsson L, Niklasson C, Liden G: Physiological effects of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000, 53: 701-708. 10.1007/s002530000328View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Modig T, Liden G, Taherzadeh MJ: Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Biochem J 2002, 363: 769-776. 10.1042/0264-6021:3630769View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taherzadeh MJ, Liden G, Gustafsson L, Niklasson C: The effects of pantothenate deficiency and acetate addition on anaerobic batch fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1996, 46: 176-182. 10.1007/s002530050801View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nilsson A, Taherzadeh MJ, Liden G: Use of dynamic step response for control of fed-batch conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol. J Biotechnol 2001, 89: 41-53. 10.1016/S0168-1656(01)00283-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smiley K, Bolen P: Demonstration of D-xylose reductase and D-xylitol dehydrogenase in Pachysolen tannophilus . Biotechnol Lett 1982., 9:Google Scholar
- Wahlbom CF, Hahn-Hägerdal B: Furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetoin act as external electron acceptors during anaerobic fermentation of xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Biotechnol Bioeng 2002, 78: 172-178. 10.1002/bit.10188View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eliasson A, Christensson C, Wahlbom CF, Hahn-Hägerdal B: Anaerobic xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1, XYL2, and XKS1 in mineral medium chemostat cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000, 66: 3381-3386. 10.1128/AEM.66.8.3381-3386.2000View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Westhuizen TJ, Pretorius IS: The value of electrophoretic fingerprinting and karyotyping in wine yeast breeding programmes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1992, 61: 249-257. 10.1007/BF00713932View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Entian K-D, Koetter P: Yeast mutant and plasmid collections. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom; 1998.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.