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Table 2 Analysis of the ethanol distillate and comparison with ethanol fuel specifications [18]

From: Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

Component Ethanol by fermentation Specificationsa
  Ethanol distillate Test method used Values Test method
Ethanol 90.7% by weight (= 72.6% by volume) Gas liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GLC-FID)/Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) 92% by volume (minimum) ASTM D 3545-90
Methanol 0.01% by weight GLC-FID/GLC-MS 2% by weight (max) ASTM D 4815-89c
Anion content (for example, chloride) Less than 1 mg/liter Ion exchange chromatography Chloride 0.0004% weight to weight (maximum) ASTM D 3120-87d
Water 9.6% by weight ASTM D 1364 0.5% by weight (maximum) ASTM E 203-75
Acidity 0.0006% by weight HAc 0.01 mg potassium hydroxide per gram ASTM D 1613 HAc 0.007% by weight (maximum) potassium hydroxideb ASTM D 1613-85
  1. aSpecifications for E-95 (denatured) ethanol fuel according to the Detroit Diesel Corporation.
  2. bNo specifications available.
  3. cOther alcohols and ethers.
  4. dASTM D 3120-87 modified for determination of organic chlorides and ASTM D 2988-86.