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Table 2 Brief summary of SSF experiments carried out on hexose sugars.

From: A short review on SSF – an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

Raw material Type of pretreatment Amount of solids 1 Detoxification Temp (°C) Strain Cultivation on hydrolyzate Final ethanol conc. (g L-1) Ethanol yield (%) 2 Mode of operation 3 Year and reference
Barley straw Steam 7.5% WIS No 35 S. cerevisiae Yes 22.4 80 Batch 2007 [121]
Salix Steam 9% WIS No 37 S. cerevisiae Yes 32 76 Batch 2006 [120]
Salix Steam 11% WIS No 37 S. cerevisiae Yes 33 62 Fed-batch 2006 [120]
Spruce Steam 10% WIS No 37 S. cerevisiae Yes 44.5 84 Batch 2005 [117]
Spruce Steam 6–10% WIS No 37 S. cerevisiae Yes 44.5 84 Fed-batch 2005 [117]
Yellow Poplar Hardwood Dilute-acid 11.5% WIS LLE-OL 4 34 Z. mobilis No 32.2 54 Batch 1999 [131]
Poplar Steam 10% w/v No (only solids in def. medium) 42 K. fragilis CECT 10875 No 19.0 71.2 Shake flask 2004 [138]
Eucalyptus Steam 10% w/v No (only solids in def. medium) 42 K. fragilis CECT 10875 No 17.0 62.5 Shake flask 2004 [138]
Wheat straw Steam 10% w/v No (only solids in def. medium) 42 K. fragilis CECT 10875 No 18.1 62.5 Shake flask 2004 [138]
Sweet sorghum bagasse Steam 10% w/v No (only solids in def. medium) 42 K. fragilis CECT 10875 No 16.2 60.9 Shake flask 2004 [138]
B. carinata residue Steam 10% w/v No (only solids in def. medium) 42 K. fragilis CECT 10875 No 19.0 68.1 Shake flask 2004 [138]
Old corrugated cardboard (OCC) none 6 wt % No, def. medium 40 K. fragilis No 14.1 61.2 * Shake flask 2004 [154]
Old corrugated cardboard (OCC) none 6 wt % No, def. medium 40 S. cerevisiae No 14.2 61.8 * Shake flask 2004 [154]
Paper sludge none 6 wt % No, def. medium 40 K. fragilis No 8.8 63.7 * Shake flask 2004 [154]
Paper sludge none 6 wt % No, def. medium 40 S. cerevisiae No 9.0 65.5 * Shake flask 2004 [154]
Antigonum leptopus leaves Alkaline + H2O2 10% w/v No 43 K. fragilis No 27 n.a. Shake flask 2001 [141]
Antigonum leptopus leaves Alkaline + H2O2 10% w/v No 40 S. cerevisiae No 21 n.a. Shake flask 2001 [141]
Sugar cane leaves Alkaline + H2O2 10% w/v No 43 K. fragilis No 28 n.a Shake flask 2001 [141]
Sugar cane leaves Alkaline + H2O2 10% w/v No 40 S. cerevisiae No 22 n.a. Shake flask 2001 [141]
Willow (Salix caprea QO82) Steam- pretreatment 10% dry matter No 37 S. cerevisiae No 28.7 84.4 Batch 1995 [122]
Willow (Salix caprea QO82) Steam 10% dry matter No 37 Z. mobilis No 27.9 82.1 Batch 1995 [122]
Switchgrass Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae & B. clausenii mixed culture No 37.0 * 87 5 Shake flask 1992 [136]
Sweetgum Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 36.6 * 86 5 Shake flask 1992 [136]
Corn cob Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 39.1 * 94 5 Shake flask 1992 [136]
Corn stover Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 39.1 * 92 5 Shake flask 1992 [136]
Wheat straw Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 38.3 * 90 5 Shake flask 1992 [136]
Populus Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 38.3 * 90 5 Shake flask 1991 [125]
Populus Dilute sulfuric acid 7.5% w/v cellulose No (only solids in def. medium) 37 S. cerevisiae No 36.6 * 86 5 Batch 1991 [125]
  1. * Not directly given in the reference article, calculated by the authors.
  2. 1. The amount of solids can vary significantly due to how this is reported (e.g. WIS or dry matter), and may have a large impact on the SSF results. This is not always clearly defined in the respective research article.
  3. 2. Based on maximal theoretical ethanol yield on available hexoses, in most cases only glucose.
  4. 3. Batch and Fed-batch refers to SSF in bioreactor/fermenter.
  5. 4. LLE-OL = Liquid-liquid extraction followed by overliming
  6. 5. The maximal theoretical yield was assumed by Wyman et al. [136] to be only 95% due to cell growth.