Time course profile of ethanol production and sugars assimilation in various aeration rates by F. oxysporum. A) 0 vvm, B) 0.1 vvm, C) 0.2 vvm, D) 0.4 vvm. The concentration of the sugar mixture and the ratio of the sugars (glucose/xylose/arabinose) in the mixture was 6% w/v and 1/2/1 respectively in all cases (black circle – Arabinose, open circle – xylose, black triangle – glucose, black square – ethanol). Experiments were performed under submerged conditions in cylindrical bioreactors of 1 L working volume. The initial culture pH was 6.0 and the temperature was set at 30°C. Values are the mean of three determinations and vertical error bars represent standard deviation.