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Table 2 Optimal ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) conditions within the parameters tested in this study.

From: Evaluation of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass harvested in different seasons and locations

  CIR: July CIR: October Alamo: July Alamo: October
Ammonia (g/g BM) 0.9 2.0 1.6 2.0
Water (g/g BM) 0.4 0.4 2.0 2.0
Residence time (min) 20 30 30 25
Temperature (°C) 80 130 160 150
Sugar yield (g/kg BM) 385 280 288 320
Sugar yield (%) 65.6 41.6 45.0 49.5
Glucose yield (g/kg BM) 276 172 198 221
Xylose yield (g/kg BM) 98 102 89 100
R2 80.0% 79.9% 83.6% 94.1%
  1. BM = biomass; CIR = Cave-in-Rock.