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Table 4 Overall bulk materials used in ethanol making process (2010 prices)

From: Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

   Dilute Acid Dilute Alkali Hot Water Steam Explosion
Material Unit Cost ($/kg) Annual Cost ($1000×) Cost (¢/L EtOH) Annual Cost ($) Cost (¢/L EtOH) Annual Cost ($1000×) Cost (¢/L EtOH) Annual Cost ($) Cost (¢/L EtOH)
Water 0.0003 106.69 0.18 108.21 0.18 104.04 0.18 70.05 0.13
Tall Fescue 0.0500 12500.00 20.95 12500.00 21.02 12500.00 21.06 12500.00 23.35
Sulfuric Acid 0.0350 429.12 0.72 99.79 0.17 0 0.00 0 0.00
Ca Hydroxide 0.1000 597.09 1.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
DAP 0.2100 16.632 0.03 16.63 0.03 16.63 0.03 16.63 0.03
Cellulase 0.5170 8066.60 13.52 9279.01 15.60 9265.98 15.61 8840.70 16.52
Yeast 2.3000 455.40 0.76 455.40 0.77 455.40 0.77 455.40 0.85
Sodium Hydroxide 0.4500 0.00 0.00 4203.80 7.07 0.00 0.00 0 0.00
Gasoline 0.8000 390.53 0.65 389.29 0.65 388.48 0.65 350.10 0.65