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Table 5 Overall utilities used in ethanol making process using dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment (2010 prices)

From: Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

  Dilute Acid Dilute Alkali
Utility Amount (kg/L EtOH) Annual cost $ (%) Cost (¢/L EtOH) Amount (kg/L EtOH) Annual cost $ (%) Cost (¢/L EtOH)
Electricity (KWh)a 0.56 2334792 (55.4) 3.91 0.52 2163214 (53.5) 3.64
Steam 5.91 0 0.00 5.82 0 0.00
Cooling Water 500.24 1492305 (35.4) 2.50 500.50 1488313 (36.8) 2.50
Chilled Water 0.73 17367 (0.4) 0.03 0.84 19977 (0.5) 0.03
CT Water 88.76 370702 (8.8) 0.62 89.04 370702 (9.2) 0.62
Steam (High P) 0.42 0 0.00 0.42 0 0.00
  1. a These electricity values did not account for electricity required for cooling and chilled water