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Table 3 Esterification of oleic acid under optimized conditions

From: Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatrophaoil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

Optimized experimental variables     
Catalyst loading (based on weight of oleic acid) Molar ratio oleic acid:methanol Temperature Reaction time Oleic acid conversion rate
5% 1:12 80°C 5 h 96.1%