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Table 3 Impact of the operation parameters on the inhibitor and sugar level of the dry pretreatment in the helically agitated reactor

From: Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

Pretreatment conditions Inhibitors in the pretreated CS (g/100 g DM) Sugars in the pretreated CS (g/100 g DM)
Furfural 5-HMF Acetic acid Glucose Xylose O-Glu O-Xyl
Changing temperature        
165°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.13 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.00 0.45 ± 0.15 0.43 ± 0.01 7.58 ± 0.14 0.94 ± 0.06 9.28 ± 1.11
175°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.24 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.00 0.55 ± 0.01 0.60 ± 0.01 10.05 ± 0.21 0.78 ± 0.03 6.42 ± 0.09
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.63 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.02 10.20 ± 0.02 1.10 ± 0.44 2.84 ± 0.45
Changing acid concentration        
185°C, 1.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.08 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.02 0.59 ± 0.06 0.45 ± 0.05 2.39 ± 0.00 0.72 ± 0.04 11.02 ±0.02
185°C, 2.0%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.18 ± 0.06 0.09 ± 0.07 0.58 ± 0.02 0.48 ± 0.00 5.34 ± 0.01 0.77 ± 0.00 8.45 ± 0.38
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.63 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.02 10.20 ± 0.02 1.10 ± 0.44 2.84 ± 0.45
185°C, 3.0%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.89 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.03 1.29 ± 0.03 2.41 ± 0.02 9.99 ± 0.11 0.39 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.15
185°C, 3.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.78 ± 0.02 0.36 ± 0.07 1.24 ± 0.05 2.07 ± 0.02 7.85 ± 0.08 0.45 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.10
185°C, 4.0%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.84 ± 0.07 0.41 ± 0.17 1.22 ± 0.16 3.50 ± 0.02 8.34 ± 0.04 0.43 ± 0.07 0.45 ± 0.13
Changing residue time        
185°C, 2.5%, 1 minute, 50 rpm 0.39 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.01 0.73 ± 0.04 0.79 ± 0.00 9.89 ± 0.03 0.90 ± 0.08 2.56 ± 0.35
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.63 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.02 10.20 ± 0.02 1.10 ± 0.44 2.84 ± 0.45
185°C, 2.5%, 5 minutes, 50 rpm 0.80 ± 0.15 0.27 ± 0.03 1.09 ± 0.07 1.21 ± 0.02 7.91 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.11 1.35 ± 0.04
185°C, 2.5%, 10 minutes, 50 rpm 0.99 ± 0.10 0.30 ± 0.02 1.13 ± 0.07 1.17 ± 0.01 6.27 ± 0.07 0.69 ± 0.04 0.37 ± 0.08
Changing agitation rate        
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 10 rpm 0.59 ± 0.04 0.18 ± 0.02 0.80 ± 0.10 0.99 ± 0.20 10.65 ± 0.35 0.49 ± 0.07 1.53 ± 0.00
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 30 rpm 0.52 ± 0.02 0.19 ± 0.00 0.79 ± 0.11 0.97 ± 0.27 10.58 ± 0.23 0.78 ± 0.05 2.04 ± 0.04
185°C, 2.5%, 3 minutes, 50 rpm 0.63 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.02 10.20 ± 0.02 1.10 ± 0.44 2.84 ± 0.45
  1. The data in the pretreatment conditions column indicate the pretreatment temperature, acid concentration, and residual time, respectively. All the pretreatment experiments were carried out at 50 rpm. All the experiments were carried out in duplicate. Error was calculated as standard deviation. 5-HMF, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; CS, corn stover; DM, dry matter; O-Glu, glucan oligomer; O-Xyl, xylan oligomer.