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Table 1 Properties and working conditions in transesterification and degumming of all enzymes used

From: Combining phospholipases and a liquid lipase for one-step biodiesel production using crude oils

  Transesterification Enzymatic degumming
Enzyme Lipase Phospholipase A1 Phospholipase C Lyso-phospholipase
Commercial name Callera Trans® L (Novozymes A/S) Lecitase® Ultra (Novozymes A/S) Purifine® (Verenium) LLPL-2 (Novozymes A/S)
pH 5 4.5 to 5.5 7 4.5 to 4.8
Temperature 35°C 50 to 55°C 60°C 40 to 45°C
Time reaction 24 h 4 to 6 h 2 h  
Dosage 1% 30 ppm 200 ppm 250 to 500 ppm
H2O required 2 to 3.5% 3% 1 to 4%  
Methanola 1.5 eqs    
Acid pretreatmentb   0.065% Citric acid/0.025% Phosphoric acid
Caustic neutralizationb   2 eqs NaOH
  1. aRequired for transesterification, never studied in enzymatic degumming; bgenerally used to help the enzymatic degumming, unknown effect on lipase activity.