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Table 2 Summary of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments

From: Combined substrate, enzyme and yeast feed in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation allow bioethanol production from pretreated spruce biomass at high solids loadings

SSF Substrate Water insoluble solids (WIS) Yeast loading amount, g Enzyme loading, FPU Glucosee, g Ethanol
% (w/w) Amount, g g L-1 %f
B* Slurry 19 285 7.5 2138 68.0 2.1 2
B Solid fractiona 20 300 7.5 2250 0.1 9.5 13
FB Solid fractiona 10 to 20b 50 to 300 7.5 1125 to 2250d 0.1 27.9 37
FB Solid fractiona 10 to 20b 50 to 300 3.5 to 7.5c 2250 0.5 33 44
FB Solid fractiona 10 to 20b 50 to 300 3.5 to 7.5c 1125 to 2250d 0.5 40 53
  1. *Batch SSF was carried out with prehydrolysis of 24 h. aThe solid fraction with a WIS content of 31% (w/w) was not washed and therefore, free sugars and inhibitors exist in it but in lower amounts compared to the slurry. bFed-batch experiments started as a batch at 10% WIS with a working weight of 500 g. After 8 h, substrate was fed every 4 or 8 h until 65 h to a final WIS content of 20%. cFed-batch experiments started as a batch with an initial yeast loading of 3.5 g (7 g L-1). After 8 h, cell suspension was fed every 4 or 8 h until 65 h to a final yeast amount of 7.5 g (5 g L-1). dFed-batch experiments started as a batch with an initial enzyme loading of 1125 filter paper units (FPU) (22.5 FPU g of WIS-1). After 8 h, enzyme preparation was fed every 4 or 8 h until 65 h to a final enzyme loading of 2250 FPU (7.5 FPU g of WIS-1). eResidual amounts of glucose at the end of 96 h of SSF. fYield of theoretical maximum based on the total amount of glucose, mannose and galactose in the pretreated spruce. Yields are calculated for the concentrations after 96 h of SSF.