Fermentation profile of engineered D452-2 and SR8-a strains supplemented with cellobiose and xylose. S. cerevisiae D452-2 (red circle) and SR8-a (orange square) strains were transformed with the pCS plasmid. Anaerobic fermentations were supplied with 80 g/L cellobiose and 40 g/L xylose. Extracellular concentrations of (A) cellobiose, (B) ethanol, (C) xylose, (D) xylitol and (E) glucopyranosyl-xylose are shown. Values and error bars represent the means and standard deviations of two independent biological replicates.