Micro-aerobic fermentation tests with the evolved strain. Ethanol production (A) and xylose consumption (B) profiles were measured in micro-aerobic conditions for wild-type (white), the rationally engineered strain (grey), and evolved strain (black) of S. cerevisiae. Ethanol production and xylose consumption were significantly increased in the evolved strain. Total improvement in both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates were about 4-fold. Error bars represent the standard deviation of biological triplicates.