Impact of cellobiose on central carbon metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and thiamine biosynthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (A) Genes involved in mitochondrial function, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation are shown. (B) Genes involved in amino acid and thiamine biosynthesis. (C) Genes involved in sugar transport, glycolysis and fermentation, the pentose phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis, storage of carbohydrates (trehalose and glycogen), and the glyoxylate cycle. (A–C) Only genes with significantly different expression when comparing cellobiose-grown versus glucose-grown cells are shown (color-coded boxes), including the fold change on cellobiose (C8) versus glucose (G8). Transcription levels that significantly increased or decreased on cellobiose in contrast to glucose (absolute fold changes ≥2.0, P ≤ 0.001) are shown in green and red boxes, respectively.