increases ethanol production by various consortia. (A) IS, SW, and SS differed significantly in their community structure, as shown by PCR-DGGE analysis. (B) Principal component analysis (PCA) of the PCR-DGGE data in A. PC1 and PC2 explained 57.0% and 43.0% of the total variance, respectively. (C) Enhancing the ethanol production of consortia using P. taiwanensis. Fermentation was conducted at 55°C for 7 days with the original consortia as controls. Samples were collected each day to measure ethanol titers, and the highest titers are shown. The error bars represent the SD (n = 3).