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Table 4 Summary of Brazil’s advances in social, agricultural, and energy sectors: 1980 to 2010

From: Bioenergy and African transformation

Sector Social Agricultural Energy
Index Minimum wage (US$ 2010 /month) Population out of poverty (%) Global hunger Index (GHI) a Exports (million US$ 2010 ) Net imported (% supply) Renewable (% supply) b Biofuels (% liquid fuel supply)
  [86] [87] [88,89] [90] [91]
1980 207 67 10.4 (1981) 24,700 42% 46% 8%
2010 298 90 4.0 (2011) 62,100 10% 47% 27%
  1. aThe Global Hunger Index is used to evaluate the hunger situation by countries, considering: a) the undernourished population as a percentage of the total population, b) the prevalence of underweight children under the age of 5, and c) the under-5 mortality rate. Values less than 4.9 reflect “low hunger”, values between 5 and 9.9 reflect “moderate hunger”, and values between 10 and 19.9 indicate “serious hunger”. The worst global hunger scores in 2011 were ascribed to Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo, with scores of 37.9 and 39, respectively.
  2. bThe share of renewable energy supply remained about constant, but shifted from wood fuel used in households for cooking to liquid biofuels used in the transportation sector. In this period the total energy supply increased 234% (115 to 269 Mtoe) [91].