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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 1

From: Enhanced direct fermentation of cassava to butanol by Clostridium species strain BOH3 in cofactor-mediated medium

Fig. 1

Calcium as a metal cofactor in the α-amylase of Clostridium sp. strain BOH3. a Ca2+ concentration in α-amylase and cell lysate without or with supplementation of CaCO3; b CaCO3-induced increases in the activities of α-amylase, NADPH- and NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenases. Increases in activity are expressed as fold differences between the CaCO3-supplemented fermentation broth and the CaCO3-free fermentation broth

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