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Fig. 4 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 4

From: Enhanced direct fermentation of cassava to butanol by Clostridium species strain BOH3 in cofactor-mediated medium

Fig. 4

Relationship of alcohol synthesis and NADH/NADPH regenerations. The de novo biosynthesis of NADH/NADPH starts at l-tryptophan and then NADH/NADPH goes to butanol pathway via NADPH/NADH circle while NAD+/NADP+ are generated; beside complement of NADH/NADPH from de novo synthesis, NAD+/NADP+ in active cells goes back to NADPH/NADH to regenerate its reducing form. nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN); nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH); alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (AAD); butanol dehydrogenase I (BDHA); butanol dehydrogenase II (BDHB)

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