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Table 1 Effect of calcium carbonate on ABE production by wild-type Clostridium sp. strain BOH3

From: Enhanced direct fermentation of cassava to butanol by Clostridium species strain BOH3 in cofactor-mediated medium

Fermentation characteristicsa Calcium carbonate (mM)
0 5 10 30 50 70 100
Maximum dry cell weight (g/L) 3.4 ± 0.18 4.0 ± 0.23 4.9 ± 0.19 4.8 ± 0.20 4.7 ± 0.24 4.7 ± 0.21 4.5 ± 0.22
Butanol (g/L) 7.8 ± 0.13 9.5 ± 0.31 11.8 ± 0.24 11.6 ± 0.41 11.8 ± 0.32 11.4 ± 0.29 11.0 ± 0.35
Acetone (g/L) 3.8 ± 0.17 3.6 ± 0.25 3.3 ± 0.21 3.1 ± 0.21 3.0 ± 0.17 2.8 ± 0.15 2.6 ± 0.19
Ethanol (g/L) 0.7 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.06 0.8 ± 0.05 0.7 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.02 0.6 ± 0.04
Acetate (g/L) 2.1 ± 0.07 3.8 ± 0.19 1.7 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.08 1.4 ± 0.06 1.1 ± 0.09 0.8 ± 0.07
Butyrate (g/L) 2.4 ± 0.11 3.4 ± 0.16 1.1 ± 0.01 0.7 ± 0.05 0.6 ± 0.07 0.8 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.03
Total solvent (g/L) 12.3 ± 0.5 13.9 ± 0.9 16.0 ± 1.1 15.5 ± 1.2 15.5 ± 0.8 14.8 ± 1.0 14.2 ± 0.9
pH lowest a 3.9 ± 0.2 4.1 ± 0.1 4.8 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 5.2 ± 0.2 5.3 ± 0.1
Final pH 4.7 ± 0.1 4.8 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.2 5.3 ± 0.1 5.4 ± 0.2 5.5 ± 0.2
Butanol productivity (g/L h) 0.10 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02
Total starch hydrolysis rate (g/L h) 0.48 ± 0.02 0.59 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.02 0.73 ± 0.04 0.75 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.01 0.73 ± 0.04
  1. aNo pH adjustments