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Table 1 Physicochemical analysis of thin stillage from sugar and energy cane used for bioethanol production

From: Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

Parameter Energy cane stillage (n = 3) Sugar cane stillage (n = 6) t test
(mg/L)a (µM) (mg/L)a (µM) p value
tCOD 43,398 ± 3133 NR 30,106 ± 2186 NR 0.0064 (#)
sCOD 40,279 ± .893 NR 25,875 ± 381 NR 0.00043 (#)
pH 4.30 ± 0.03 NR 4.32 ± 0.00 NR 0.051 (=)
C:N pelletb 11.2:1 NR 13.8:1 NR NR
Ammonia 509.2 ± 26.5 9519.2 ± 496.3 260.5 ± 113.7 4869.5 ± 2126.0 0.00057 (#)
Arabinose 15.6 ± 0.7 104.1 ± 4.9 0.7 ± 0.1 4.8 ± 0.8 0.00065 (#)
Galactose 45.1 ± 0.0 250.3 ± 0.0 1.7 ± 0.3 9.6 ± 1.7 8.7 × 10−12 (#)
Glucose 1275.7 ± 7.2 7080.9 ± 39.7 0.4 ± 0.0 2.5 ± 0.2 1.1 × 10−5 (#)
Xylose 0.4 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 4.9 0.8 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 1.9 0.44 (=)
Mannose 1.4 ± 0.7 7.6 ± 3.8 0.3 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.6 0.12 (=)
Fructose 67.1 ± 16.1 372.6 ± 89.3 2.1 ± 0.9 11.6 ± 4.9 0.020 (#)
Succinic acid 169.6 ± 12.6 1436.1 ± 107.1 57.8 ± 2.3 489.3 ± 19.7 0.0038 (#)
Lactic acid 3376.1 ± 40.1 37,478.5 ± 445.5 3158.4 ± 27.3 35,062.6 ± 302.8 0.0040 (#)
Glycerol NA NR 937.2 ± 5.3 10,177.4 ± 57.8
Acetic acid 2710.2 ± 20.0 45,131.6 ± 332.9
Fumaric acid < <
HMF NA NR 6.8 ± 0.0 54.2 ± 0.4
Furfural NA NR 40.2 ± 0.5 417.9 ± 4.8
Ethanol NA NR 7290.0 ± 370.0 158,237.5 ± 8031.3
Fluoride NA NR
Chloride 206.4 ± 0.7 5822.3 ± 18.5
Nitrite NA NR 1.6 ± 2.2 34.5 ± 48.8
Bromide NA NR 0.4 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 7.0
Nitrate NA NR 0.6 ± 0.6 9.1 ± 8.9
Phosphate 216.1 ± 14.1 2275.5 ± 148.8 175.0 ± 57.8 1842.8 ± 608.6 0.13 (=)
Sulfate 2225.2 ± 4.6 23,162.6 ± 48.4 1743.9 ± 88.3 18,152.1 ± 919.1 1.5 × 10−5 (#)
  1. apH is expressed in units and C:N pellet is a ratio
  2. bSingle measurement of the small amount of pellet material obtained
  3. Not detected, < below detection limit, NA not analyzed, NR not relevant, # significantly different (p < 0.05), = not significantly different (p > 0.05)