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Table 2 Elemental composition of thin stillage from sugar and energy cane used for bioethanol production

From: Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

Element Name Energy cane stillage (n = 3) Sugar cane stillage (n = 6) t test
(mg/L) (mM) (mg/L) (mM) p value
Al Aluminum 0.56 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.00 1.06 ± 0.15 0.04 ± 0.01 7.3 × 10−6 (#)
As Arsenic < < < <
B Boron 1.81 ± 0.35 0.17 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.03 0.02 ± 0.00 0.067 (=)
Ba Barium 0.21 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 < <
Be Beryllium < < < <
Ca Calcium 659.05 ± 5.80 16.44 ± 0.14 375.93 ± 2.83 9.38 ± 0.07 1.3 × 10−12 (#)
Cd Cadmium < < < <
Co Cobalt < < 0.04 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00
Cr Chromium 0.71 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.00 0.28 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 7.3 × 10−11 (#)
Cu Copper 0.04 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 0.04 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 6.3 × 10−5 (#)
Fe Iron 37.94 ± 0.35 0.68 ± 0.01 5.44 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.00 1.4 × 10−6 (#)
K Potassium 201.53 ± 6.64 5.15 ± 0.17 93.46 ± 1.35 2.39 ± 0.03 1.1 × 10−8 (#)
Li Lithium < < < <
Mg Magnesium 470.01 ± 7.50 19.34 ± 0.31 234.96 ± 0.44 9.67 ± 0.02 1.9 × 10−10 (#)
Mn Manganese 1.70 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.00 1.11 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 1.3 × 10−6 (#)
Mo Molybdenum < < 0.08 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00
Na Sodium 3617.74 ± 73.67 157.36 ± 3.20 888.39 ± 9.32 38.64 ± 0.41 0.00066 (#)
Ni Nickel 1.54 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.00 1.18 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 5.0 × 10−9 (#)
P Phosphorus 97.23 ± 1.43 3.14 ± 0.05 109.07 ± 0.49 3.52 ± 0.02 1.9 × 10−15 (#)
Pb Lead < < < <
S Sulfur 780.79 ± 6.50 24.35 ± 0.20 384.71 ± 4.42 12.00 ± 0.14 5.2 × 10−12 (#)
Sb Antimony < < < <
Se Selenium < < < <
Si Silicon 46.29 ± 12.79 1.65 ± 0.46 26.07 ± 0.44 0.93 ± 0.02 0.00027 (#)
Sn Tin < < < <
Sr Strontium 0.70 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.00 0.25 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 9.8 × 10−9 (#)
Ti Titanium 0.03 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 1.3 × 10−10 (#)
Tl Thallium < < < <
V Vanadium < < < <
Zn Zinc 1.71 ± 0.08 0.03 ± 0.00 0.78 ± 0.25 0.01 ± 0.00 0.0025 (#)
  1. < Below detection limit, – not applicable, # significantly different (p < 0.05), = not significantly different (p > 0.05)