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Table 3 Estimated production and consumption of cofactors and ATP by E. coli BW25113 and the ΔptsGglpK* mutant

From: Elucidation of the co-metabolism of glycerol and glucose in Escherichia coli by genetic engineering, transcription profiling, and 13C metabolic flux analysis

Strain Wild type ptsGglpK*
a NADH
 Dilution rate (h−1) 0.1 0.35 0.1 0.35
 GLPDH 0 0 0 0
 Glycolysis 6.77 27.64 6.09 26.90
 TCA cycle 4.67 6.95 4.12 1.30
 PP pathway 0 0 0 0
 Anaplerotic pathway 0.03 0.33 0.02 0.25
 Acetate formation 0 0 0 0
 Biomass formation 0.33 1.17 0.33 1.17
 Transhydrogenation 1.45 0.47 1.17 −2.26
 Oxidative phosphorylation −13.25 −36.57 −11.72 −28.18
b FADH2
 Dilution rate (h−1) 0.1 0.35 0.1 0.35
 GLPDH 2.01 1.72 1.87 13.90
 Glycolysis 0 0 0 0
 TCA cycle 2.36 3.80 2.07 1.30
 PP pathway 0 0 0 0
 Anaplerotic pathway 0 0 0 0
 Acetate formation 0 0 0 0
 Biomass formation 0 0 0 0
 Transhydrogenation 0 0 0 0
 Oxidative phosphorylation −4.37 −5.52 −3.94 −15.20
c NADPH
 Dilution rate (h−1) 0.1 0.35 0.1 0.35
 GLPDH 0 0 0 0
 Glycolysis 0 0 0 0
 TCA cycle 2.19 4.34 2.04 1.84
 PP pathway 1.02 2.12 0.92 1.94
 Anaplerotic pathway 0.03 0.33 0.02 0.25
 Acetate formation 0 0 0 0
 Biomass formation −1.80 −6.30 −1.80 −6.30
 Transhydrogenation −1.45 −0.47 −1.17 2.26
 Oxidative phosphorylation 0 0 0 0
d ATP
 Dilution rate (h−1) 0.1 0.35 0.1 0.35
 Glucose uptake 0 0 −0.96 −1.14
 Glycerol uptake −2.01 −1.72 −1.87 −13.90
 GLPDH 0 0 0 0
 Glycolysis 5.25 13.99 5.68 27.11
 TCA cycle 2.04 3.80 1.88 1.30
 PP pathway 0 0 0 0
 Anaplerotic pathway 0 0 0 0
 Acetate formation 0 6.97 0 9.13
 Biomass formation −2.30 −8.05 −2.30 −8.05
 Transhydrogenation 0 0 0 0
 Oxidative phosphorylationa 48.49   43.08  
 Oxidative phosphorylationb   99.48   
 Oxidative phosphorylationc     71.57
 Maintenance cost 51.47 114.47 45.51 86.37
  1. a NADH. b FADH2. c NADPH. d ATP
  2. All the fluxes shown are absolute values (mmol/g/h)
  3. aThe P/O ratios for NADH and FADH2 were 3 and 2, respectively
  4. bThe P/O ratios for NADH and FADH2 were 2.5 and 1.5, respectively
  5. cThe P/O ratios for NADH and FADH2 were 2 and 1, respectively