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Table 1 Summary of the reactor configurations and experimental conditions for the four pretreatment reactor systems used in this study

From: Assessing pretreatment reactor scaling through empirical analysis

  ASE-350 (ASE) ZipperClave®(ZCR) Steam explosion (SER) Large horizontal reactor (LHR)
Operating mode Batch Batch Batch Continuous
Sample amount (kg, dry basis) 0.003 0.07–0.10 0.25 10–25 kg/h
Operational capacity (kg/day) 0.03 0.7 0.8 600
Biomass impregnation In situ Ex situ Ex situ Ex situ
Heating Oven Steam injection Steam injection Steam injection
Minimum residence time (min) 4 4 1 10
Solids loading (\(\%\)) 10 25 25–30 30
Conditions per day\(^\mathrm{a}\) 9 9 8 4
Operator hours per condition\(^\mathrm{b}\) 0.5 2 2 6
Mechanical shearing X X
Rapid decompression X X
  1. aExpected maximum based on full-time operation over several days
  2. bIncludes the time required to prepare, run, and shut down the equipment. Compositional analysis of output streams and yield calculations is not included