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Table 3 GC–MS analysis of HTL-produced bio-oil products from A. filiculoides

From: Aquatic plant Azolla as the universal feedstock for biofuel production

Compounds identified in bio-oil Area, %
260 °C 280 °C 300 °C
Pyrazine, methyl- 1.4 1.8 2
2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2-methyl- 1.4 2.6 2
Pyrazine, 2,6-dimethyl- 0.8
Pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl- 1
Phenol 6.1 18.8 11.1
p-Cresol 1.4 2.6
2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl- 1.1
2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2,3-dimethyl- 1.6 1.3
Phenol, 2-methoxy- 1.1 1.2 1.2
3-Pyridinol 13.3 11.9 10.1
3-Pyridinol, 6-methyl- 1.7 2.1
Phenol, 4-ethyl- 1
Phenol, 4-amino- 1.2  
Catechol 10 15.7 11.8
Phenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxy- 0.8 2.2
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-methyl- 2.8
1,4-Benzenediol, 2-methyl- 0.6
Naphthalene, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)- 1.8
Cyclopentane, 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)- 5
Hydantoin, 1-butyl- 3.9 1.9
2-Benzimidazolinethione, hexahydro- 1.2
l-Proline, N-butoxycarbonyl-, butyl ester 7.8 7.2
l-Proline, N-butoxycarbonyl-, heptyl ester 3.3
l-Norleucine, N-allyloxycarbonyl-, octadecyl ester 1.1
2,5-Piperazinedione, 3-benzyl-6-isopropyl- 1.9 0.6
9-Octadecenamide, (Z)- 0.8 1.4 1.5
2,5-Piperazinedione, 3-benzyl-6-isopropyl- 0.9 1.2
Cyclo-(l-leucyl-l-phenylalanyl) 3.2 1.9
Bicyclo[11.3.0]hexadecane-2,14-dione 2.4
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 13.6 12.4 8.7
Beta-sitosterol 22.8
Stigmastan-3,5-diene 8.5