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Table 1 Metal ions in biomass before and after demineralization and the respective levoglucosan yields

From: Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

Ion [g/kg] Switchgrass Corn Cobs
Untreated Acetic acid Nitric acid Untreated Acetic acid Nitric acid
Ca2+ [g/kg] 2.52 ± 0.20 1.94 ± 0.02 0.76 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.03 0.17 ± 0.06 0.06 ± 0.03
K+ [g/kg] 11.03 ± 0.20 0.07 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.01 15.52 ± 1.47 0.58 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.01
Mg2+ [g/kg] 0.95 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.01 0.71 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.06 0.04 ± 0.02
Na+ [g/kg] 0.09 ± 0.03 0.01 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 0.07 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 0.04 ± 0.00
Alkali [g/kg biomass] 14.59 2.03 0.83 16.77 0.85 0.47
Ash [g/kg biomass] 40.00 22.20 21.07 27.90 5.09 2.84
Alkali in ash [%] 36.48 9.15 3.96 60.12 16.68 16.50
Levoglucosan [g/L] 1.39 22.42 23.06 2.16 18.06 28.78
Yield \(\left[ \frac{\text{mol levoglucosan}}{\text{mol glucan}} \right]\) 0.02 0.30 0.31 0.03 0.23 0.37
  1. Levoglucosan concentrations were obtained after water extraction; the yields are expressed as mole levoglucosan per mole of glucan of the respective biomass (38.80 wt% in corn cobs [66] and 37.00 wt% in switchgrass [67])