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Table 1 Characteristics of liquid products from HTL of lignocellulosic biomass

From: Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors

Items This studya Zhu et al. [23] Yoshida et al. [28]
Feedstock Cornstalk Cornstalk Beech wood
HTL conditions b 260 °C, 20% 260 °C, 10% 380 °C, 3%
Aqueous products
Reducing sugars (mg/L) 11.344 ± 3.011 5.991 ± 0.410
Total inorganic carbon (mg/L) 0.135 ± 0.002
Total organic carbon (mg/L) 28.600 ± 1.335 18.725 ± 1.033
Total nitrogen (mg/L) 1.045 ± 0.086
COD (mg/L) 76.192 ± 1.557 34.256 ± 0.880
Formic acid (mg/L) 8.509 ± 1.542 2.320 ± 0.560 0.100–0.900
Lactic acid (mg/L) 9.758 ± 1.392 4.830 ± 0.140 0.300–5.400
Acetic acid (mg/L) 22.336 ± 2.476 8.680 ± 0.740 6.600–13.500
Propionic acid (mg/L) 2.730 ± 0.856 7.280 ± 0.580
Butyric acid (mg/L) 9.072 ± 2.136 1.780 ± 0.370
5-HMF (mg/L) 1.350 ± 0.300 0.140 ± 0.010 0–3.700
Furfural (mg/L) 0.143 ± 0.042 1.850 ± 0.050 0.100–4.400
  1. aa ± b represents the mean and standard deviation calculated from n ≥ 3
  2. bRepresents the HTL temperature X °C and total solid content Y%