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Table 1 Initial evaluation of the medium components’ potentials for the optimization of lipid productivity

From: A framework for accelerated phototrophic bioprocess development: integration of parallelized microscale cultivation, laboratory automation and Kriging-assisted experimental design

Component Evaluation Reference Variation
CaCl2 Versatile effector in plant cells; reported to be essential for induction of lipid synthesis [5052] Yes
FeSO4 Influence on growth and lipid metabolism reported [51, 5355] Yes
H2SO4 Sulfur supply ensured by sulfate anions from diverse other medium components; nevertheless varied as provided together with FeSO4 in one stock solution   Yesb
K2HPO4/KH2PO4 Essential phosphorus source (nucleic acid synthesis) [54] Yes
KOH Potassium excess by phosphate salts; nevertheless varied as provided together with Na2EDTA in one stock solution   Yesc
MES Trade-off between osmotic inhibition and buffer capacity; alkaline pH may inhibit cell cycle [56] Yes
MgSO4 Influence on growth and lipid production reported; effector of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an essential enzyme during lipid biosynthesis; central atom of chlorophyll [51, 57, 58] Yes
NaCl Reported to increase lipid production; excess may cause metabolic burden (ATP dependent sodium exporters) and thus inhibit growth [59, 60] Yes
Na2EDTA Commonly used metal chelator; excess may cause growth repression due to ion depletion [51, 55] Yes
NaNO3 Essential nitrogen source (protein synthesis) [54] Yes
Penicillin-G Support of long-time sterile conditions; not metabolized (data not shown)   No
Trace elements (CoSO4, CuSO4, H3BO3, MnCl2, Na2MoO4, ZnSO4) Numerous studies about wastewater detoxification available, but only limited information concerning metabolism and lipid production; general pattern: little amounts essential, but high level cytotoxic (e.g., inhibition of photosynthesis); thus clustered to one input variable [6166] Yesa
  1. aAll trace elements were clustered to one single input variable
  2. bVaried together with FeSO4 as provided in one single stock solution
  3. cVaried together with Na2EDTA as provided in one single stock solution