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Table 3 Allocation ratios for non-energy co-products and electricity [25, 29, 30, 56, 5963]

From: Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

Supply chain component

Applicable for pathway

Main product

Co-product

Co-product allocation ratio rA

Co-product/main product

Displaced product

Displacement ratio rD

Emission factor

Reference

MJ/MJ

g/MJ

g displaced product/g co-product

g CO2eq/g displaced product

Non-energy co-products

 Camelina oil extraction

HEFA

Camelina oil

Camelina meal

0.64

47.79

Soybean meal

0.77a

0.53

[25, 59, 60]

 Corn dry mill ethanol production w/o corn oil extractionb

ATJ

Ethanol

Distillers grain solubles

0.68

31.74

Corn

0.78

0.29

[29]

Soybean meal

0.31

0.53

Urea

0.02

1.22

 Corn dry mill ethanol production w/ corn oil extractionb

ATJ

Ethanol

Distillers grain solubles

0.65

30.36

Corn

0.78

0.29

[29]

Soybean meal

0.31

0.53

Urea

0.02

1.22

Ethanol

Corn oil

0.04

1.06

Soy oil

1.00

0.53

[29]

 Corn wet mill ethanol productionb

ATJ

Ethanol

Corn gluten meal

0.15

6.87

Corn

1.53

0.29

[29]

Urea

0.02

1.22

Ethanol

Corn gluten feed

0.56

29.74

Corn

1.00

0.29

[29]

Urea

0.02

1.22

Ethanol

Corn oil

0.21

5.52

Soy oil

1.00

0.53

[29]

Supply chain component

Applicable for pathway

Main product

Co-product

Co-product allocation ratio rA

Co-product/main product

Displaced product

Displacement ratio rD

Emission factor

Reference

MJ/MJ

 

MJ displaced product/MJ co-product

g CO2eq/MJ displaced productc

Electricity (co-product)

 FT synthesis

FT

RJF

Electricity

0.45

 

US grid electricity

1.00

137.88

[30]

 Jatropha oil extraction

HEFA

Jatropha oil

Electricityd

0.34

 

US grid electricity

1.00

137.88

[29]

 Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis ex situ case

RJF

Electricity

0.51

 

US grid electricity

1.00

137.88

[54]

 Ethanol from corn stover

ATJ

Ethanol

Electricity

0.10

 

US grid electricity

1.00

137.88

[61]

 Ethanol from sugarcane

ATJ

Ethanol

Electricity

0.22

 

Brazilian grid electricity

1.00

26.52

[62]

 Sugarcane milling

DSHC (increased blend level)

RJF

Electricitye

0.13

 

Brazilian grid electricity

1.00

26.52

[63]

 Sugarcane milling

DSHC (10% blend level)

RJF

Electricitye

0.07

 

Brazilian grid electricity

1.00

26.52

[63]

  1. aBased on the ratio between the average protein content of camelina (36.2%) and soybean meal (47%)
  2. bGREET uses a weighted average of three different corn ethanol technologies. Dry mill ethanol production without corn oil extraction, dry mill ethanol production with corn oil extraction, and wet mill ethanol production respectively produce 18.23% , 72.91% and 8.87% of the total produced ethanol
  3. cFor electricity production, an average emission factor without transmission and distribution losses was used. For electricity consumption, these losses were included. For pathways located in Brazil, a much lower emission factor was used due to the high diffusion of hydropower in the electricity mix
  4. dFrom the combustion of jatropha husks, shells and meal
  5. eFrom the combustion of bagasse, after deduction of internal use of heat and power in the DSHC process