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Table 3 Allocation ratios for non-energy co-products and electricity [25, 29, 30, 56, 5963]

From: Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

Supply chain component Applicable for pathway Main product Co-product Co-product allocation ratio rA Co-product/main product Displaced product Displacement ratio rD Emission factor Reference
MJ/MJ g/MJ g displaced product/g co-product g CO2eq/g displaced product
Non-energy co-products
 Camelina oil extraction HEFA Camelina oil Camelina meal 0.64 47.79 Soybean meal 0.77a 0.53 [25, 59, 60]
 Corn dry mill ethanol production w/o corn oil extractionb ATJ Ethanol Distillers grain solubles 0.68 31.74 Corn 0.78 0.29 [29]
Soybean meal 0.31 0.53
Urea 0.02 1.22
 Corn dry mill ethanol production w/ corn oil extractionb ATJ Ethanol Distillers grain solubles 0.65 30.36 Corn 0.78 0.29 [29]
Soybean meal 0.31 0.53
Urea 0.02 1.22
Ethanol Corn oil 0.04 1.06 Soy oil 1.00 0.53 [29]
 Corn wet mill ethanol productionb ATJ Ethanol Corn gluten meal 0.15 6.87 Corn 1.53 0.29 [29]
Urea 0.02 1.22
Ethanol Corn gluten feed 0.56 29.74 Corn 1.00 0.29 [29]
Urea 0.02 1.22
Ethanol Corn oil 0.21 5.52 Soy oil 1.00 0.53 [29]
  1. aBased on the ratio between the average protein content of camelina (36.2%) and soybean meal (47%)
  2. bGREET uses a weighted average of three different corn ethanol technologies. Dry mill ethanol production without corn oil extraction, dry mill ethanol production with corn oil extraction, and wet mill ethanol production respectively produce 18.23% , 72.91% and 8.87% of the total produced ethanol
  3. cFor electricity production, an average emission factor without transmission and distribution losses was used. For electricity consumption, these losses were included. For pathways located in Brazil, a much lower emission factor was used due to the high diffusion of hydropower in the electricity mix
  4. dFrom the combustion of jatropha husks, shells and meal
  5. eFrom the combustion of bagasse, after deduction of internal use of heat and power in the DSHC process
Supply chain component Applicable for pathway Main product Co-product Co-product allocation ratio rA Co-product/main product Displaced product Displacement ratio rD Emission factor Reference
MJ/MJ   MJ displaced product/MJ co-product g CO2eq/MJ displaced productc
Electricity (co-product)
 FT synthesis FT RJF Electricity 0.45   US grid electricity 1.00 137.88 [30]
 Jatropha oil extraction HEFA Jatropha oil Electricityd 0.34   US grid electricity 1.00 137.88 [29]
 Pyrolysis Pyrolysis ex situ case RJF Electricity 0.51   US grid electricity 1.00 137.88 [54]
 Ethanol from corn stover ATJ Ethanol Electricity 0.10   US grid electricity 1.00 137.88 [61]
 Ethanol from sugarcane ATJ Ethanol Electricity 0.22   Brazilian grid electricity 1.00 26.52 [62]
 Sugarcane milling DSHC (increased blend level) RJF Electricitye 0.13   Brazilian grid electricity 1.00 26.52 [63]
 Sugarcane milling DSHC (10% blend level) RJF Electricitye 0.07   Brazilian grid electricity 1.00 26.52 [63]
  1. aBased on the ratio between the average protein content of camelina (36.2%) and soybean meal (47%)
  2. bGREET uses a weighted average of three different corn ethanol technologies. Dry mill ethanol production without corn oil extraction, dry mill ethanol production with corn oil extraction, and wet mill ethanol production respectively produce 18.23% , 72.91% and 8.87% of the total produced ethanol
  3. cFor electricity production, an average emission factor without transmission and distribution losses was used. For electricity consumption, these losses were included. For pathways located in Brazil, a much lower emission factor was used due to the high diffusion of hydropower in the electricity mix
  4. dFrom the combustion of jatropha husks, shells and meal
  5. eFrom the combustion of bagasse, after deduction of internal use of heat and power in the DSHC process