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Table 2 Conditions for lignin extraction used for second-stage pretreatments (170 °C, 1 h, liquid:solid = 7:1 by v/w)

From: A comparison of various lignin-extraction methods to enhance the accessibility and ease of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of steam-pretreated poplar

Methods Extraction solvent Catalyst Washing procedure Lignin precipitation Ref.
Organosolv Ethanol/water 50/50 by wt 1% H2SO4 Ethanol/water, 50/50 by wt then hot water 10× volume of hot water [15]
Soda-AQ 14 wt% active alkali in water 0.1% AQ Hot water Adjusting pH to 2.0 [23]
Hydrotrope 30 wt% sodium salicylate in water 0.17% formic acid Hot water 10× volume of hot water [26]