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Table 2 Comparison of different glycosyl residue analysis methods for μg monosaccharide quantified per mg of AIR from three different biofuel feedstock biomass samples from three different species

From: Comparison of four glycosyl residue composition methods for effectiveness in detecting sugars from cell walls of dicot and grass tissues

Biomass-method μg glycosyl residue/mg biomass AIR
Ara Rha Fuc Xyl GlcA GalA Man Gal Glc Total neutral Total acidic Total
Populus wood
 Alditol acetate 6.7 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.01 175.3 ± 12.3  -  - 12.1 ± 0.9 9.4 ± 0.8 20.6 ± 1.5 227.5   227.4
 Uronic acid*  -  -  -  - 37.5 ± 1.3  - -    -   37.5  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 6.7 ± 0.6a 3.0 ± 0.3a 0.4 ± 0.01 175.3 ± 12.3a 37.5 ± 1.3 12.1 ± 0.9a 9.4 ± 0.8a 20.6 ± 1.5 227.5a 37.5b 264.9a
 Carbodiimide 9.0 ± 0.5b 4.0 ± 0.5a 0.5 ± 0.01 190.1 ± 10.2c 1.8 ± 0.1 16.4 ± 0.9 13.0 ± 1.0a 12.0 ± 0.8b 22.5 ± 1.8 251.1b 18.2a 269.3a
 TMS 9.3 ± 0.6b 4.2 ± 0.4a 0.4 ± 0.01 197.6 ± 7.9c 2.0 ± 0.2 18.1 ± 1.1 13.2 ± 0.9a 10.7 ± 0.6a 20.9 ± 1.3 256.3b 20.1a 276.4b
 HPAEC 11.8 ± 0.8c 5.0 ± 0.6b 0.5 ± 0.01 185.9 ± 8.5b 2.9 ± 0.2 17.9 ± 1.3 14.6 ± 0.8b 12.3 ± 0.9b 21.3 ± 1.9 251.4b 20.8a 272.2b
Rice stem
 Alditol acetate 38.9 ± 3.1 3.0 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.02 223.6 ± 9.9  -  - 2.0 ± 0.2 15.1 ± 1.3 29.3 ± 3.1 312.9   312.9
 Uronic acid*  -  - -    - 11.9 ± 0.8  -  -  -   11.9  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 38.9 ± 3.1b 3.0 ± 0.3b 1.0 ± 0.02b 223.6 ± 9.9a 11.9 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.2 15.1 ± 1.3 29.3 ± 3.1 312.9a 11.9b 324.8a
 Carbodiimide 41.3 ± 3.8b 2.3 ± 0.3b 0.4 ± 0.01a 225.6 ± 16.2b 0.9 ± 0.01 8.0 ± 0.6b 2.0 ± 0.2 16.8 ± 0.9 31.3 ± 2.9 319.7b 8.9a 328.6a
 TMS 39.5 ± 2.7b 2.0 ± 0.2a 0.8 ± 0.01b 230.3 ± 10.3b 1.0 ± 0.01 8.9 ± 0.5b 1.5 ± 0.1 15.8 ± 1.4 30.8 ± 2.6 320.7b 9.9a 330.6a
 HPAEC 35.9 ± 3.4a 2.5 ± 0.2b 0.8 ± 0.01b 242.7 ± 14.7c 1.9 ± 0.02 6.5 ± 0.5a 2.9 ± 0.3 14.6 ± 0.7 32.8 ± 2.2 332.2c 8.4a 340.5b
Switchgrass tiller
 Alditol acetate 52.0 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.01 265.2 ± 9.6  -  - 1.8 ± 0.02 16.5 ± 2.0 22.5 ± 2.1 362.0   361.9
 Uronic acid*  -  -  -  - 4.7 ± 0.4  -  -  -   4.7  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 52.0 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 0.4c 0.7 ± 0.01 265.2 ± 9.6a 4.7 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.02b 16.5 ± 2.0b 22.5 ± 2.1 362.0a 4.7 366.6a
 Carbodiimide 50.3 ± 2.6 2.3 ± 0.2b 0.4 ± 0.01 270.4 ± 12.7b 0.7 ± 0.01 3.0 ± 0.4a 1.4 ± 0.02a 14.3 ± 0.8b 22.4 ±  ± 1.9 361.5a 3.7 365.1a
 TMS 52.7 ± 3.2 2.6 ± 0.2b 0.3 ± 0.01 278.8 ±  ± 17.3c 0.8 ± 0.01 3.4 ± 0.4b 1.0 ±  ± 0.01a 13.1 ± 1.1a 22.0 ± 2.3 370.5b 4.2 374.7b
 HPAEC 53.6 ± 3.7 1.5 ± 0.1a 0.5 ± 0.01 270.6 ± 14.3b 0.9 ± 0.01 2.9 ± 0.2a 2.1 ± 0.01c 15.9 ± 0.9b 20.9 ± 2.6 365.1a 3.8 368.9a
  1. Data are means of three biological replicates ± standard deviation, with two technical replicates for alditol acetate, carbodiimide, and TMS methods (n = 6), three technical replicates for uronic acid assay (n = 9), and a single technical replicate for HPAEC method (n = 3). Different letters in superscript following the values indicate significant differences between the amounts (“a” represents the lowest amount) of a particular (or total) sugar residue in the cell walls of a species across different methods (and not between different types of sugars within that biomass sample analyzed using a particular method). Statistics are one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests with significant P value <0.05
  2. * Uronic acid assay data shown here are from analysis using TFA hydrolysis
  3. ** Alditol acetate + uronic acid data shown here are the combined data of the respective individual assays