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Table 1 Crystalline and thermal properties of neat PVA and lignin nanoparticles/PVA composite films

From: Lignin valorization: lignin nanoparticles as high-value bio-additive for multifunctional nanocomposites

Sample T m (°C) ΔH m (J g−1) X c (%) τ (nm) T i (°C) T p (°C)
Neat PVA 229 34.9 21.7 3.3 247 270
4 wt% DLNPs/PVA 229 29.7 19.2 3.3 253 274
4 wt% OLNPs/PVA 228 24.1 15.6 3.6 254 278
  1. T m melting point, ΔH m the heat of fusion, X c degree of crystallinity, τ crystal size, and T i and T p initial and maximum decomposition temperature, respectively