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Table 2 Phenotypes measured in the field trial

From: Agronomic performance of Populus deltoides trees engineered for biofuel production

Phenotypes Units Mean SDa r 2 b P-valuec
Growth and yield
 Total height cm 207 16 0.558 2.23E−12
 Internode length cm 14.8 1.8 0.373 6.92E−03
 Height growth cm 130 17 0.317 3.28E−06
 Quadratic mean diameter mm 23.2 2.9 0.602 5.86E−05
 Volume index m3 0.362 0.108 0.670 1.87E−05
Crown architecture
 Height to first branch cm 117 15 0.297 5.03E−06
 Number of branches Counts 13.3 4.0 0.286 6.85E−09
 Stem sinuosity Score: 0–4 1.21 0.86 0.028 3.89E−02
 Stem length-height ratio NA 0.988 0.019 0.187 4.70E−02
 Apical index NA 1.40 0.13 0.257 1.65E−02
 Trunk section eccentricity NA 0.215 0.097 0.069 6.00E−01
Vegetative phenology
 Bud set Score: 1–6 3.04 0.17 0.007 1.39E−74
 Bud flush Score: 1–6 5.18 0.35 0.189 2.55E−09
Stress response
 Frost damage Score: 0–3 1.93 0.26 0.385 1.50E−01
 Melampsora severity Score: 0–4 2.99 0.12 0.064 3.51E−01
 Overall herbivory Score: 1–10 2.41 1.69 0.100 8.56E−01
 Twig borer incidence Counts 2.79 1.86 0.096 6.18E−01
  1. NA not applicable for dimensionless trait
  2. aThe standard deviation (SD) of observed values
  3. bCoefficient of determination, r 2, between the observed values and the values predicted by the TPS models, an indicator of the degree of spatial-dependent variation in the trait
  4. cSignificance level, P value, of the one-way ANOVAs for all lines (k = 37; including the seven empty-vector control lines and the wild type)