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Table 2 Examples of hybrid photosynthesis system with enzymes as biocatalyst

From: Hybrid photosynthesis-powering biocatalysts with solar energy captured by inorganic devices

System Light harvester Enzyme Comments References
PBEC NiO photocathode with dye P1 CODH Pt wire anode
Water splitting
Produces carbon monoxide
[113]
PBEC BiVO4- and Co-Pi-coated FTO photoanode FDH Polydopamine cathode
Water splitting
NADH as cofactor
Produces formate
Efficiencya: 0.042%
[114]
PBEC BiFeO3 photocathode
Co-Pi/hematite photoanode
FDH/FaldH/ADH Z-scheme
Water splitting
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
220 μM h−1 methanol
[115]
PC ZnS nanorods FDH/FaldH/ADH Glycerol as e donor
Cofactor NADH
Produces methanol
[116]
PC TiO2 nanoparticles coated with [CrF5(H2O)]2− FDH/FaldH/ADH Glycerol or water as e donor
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
Produces methanol
[117]
PC Graphene modified with isatin–porphyrin chromophore FDH/FaldH/ADH TEOA as e donor
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
7.47 μM h−1 methanol
[118]
PC Carbon nitride array FDH/FaldH/ADH TEOA as e donor
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
45 nM h−1 methanol
[119]
PC Graphene modified with multi-anthraquinone substituted porphyrin FDH TEOA as e donor
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
55.5 μmol h−1 formate
[120]
PC Graphene modified with the BODIPY molecule FDH TEOA as e donor
Rhodium complex used as redox mediator
Cofactor NADH
72 μmol h−1 formate
[121]
PC Photosensitizer Ru(bpy) 2+3 FDH EDTA as e donor
Methylviologen used as redox mediator
Immobilization inside porous glass improved performance
15 mM h−1 formate
Efficiency: 0.22%
[123]
  1. PBEC photobioelectrochemical cell, CODH carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, FDH formate dehydrogenase, FaldH formaldehyde dehydrogenase, ADH: alcohol dehydrogenase, PC photocatalyst-driven system, TEOA triethanolamine, EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  2. aEfficiency refers to solar energy-to-product conversion efficiency