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Table 1 Fermentative production of C2–C4 diols by metabolic engineered strains based on different pathways

From: Production of C2–C4 diols from renewable bioresources: new metabolic pathways and metabolic engineering strategies

Product and strain Pathways Genetic modification Titer (g/L) Yield (g/g) Culture, substrate References
Ethylene glycol
 Escherichia coli d-Xylonate-dependent xylA, overexpression of xdh and yqhD 11.7 0.29 Batch, xylose [35]
 Escherichia coli d-Xylulose 1-phosphate-dependent xylBald, overexpression of khk-C, aldoB and fucO 20 0.38 Batch, xylose [39]
 Escherichia coli d-Ribulose 1-phosphate-dependent xylBald, overexpression of dte, fucK, fucA and fucO 40 0.35 Fed-batch, xylose [6]
 Corynebacterium glutamicum Serine-dependent sdaApabABC, overexpression of AsAO, AtSdc, yqhD, and serACB 3.5 0.09 Batch, glucose [40]
1,3-Propanediol
 Escherichia coli Glycerol-dependent glpKgldAndhptsHIarcA, promoter change of gapA, overexpression gpd1, gpp2, dhaBCE, gdrAB, galP, glk, btuR, and yqhD 135 0.46 Fed-batch, glucose [61]
 Escherichia coli Homoserine-dependent thrB, overexpression of gdh K92V/T195S, pdc, and yqhD 0.05 Shake flask, glucose [66]
1,2-Propanediol
 Escherichia coli Methylglyoxal-dependent zwftpiAadhEgloAldhA, overexpression mgsA, gldA, fdh1, and fucO 5.13 0.48 Shake flask, glucose [10]
 Escherichia coli Lactate-dependent poxBackA-ptaadhEdldldhA, overexpression pct, pdcD, and mmsB 1.04 0.44 Shake flask, glucose [80]
1,4-Butanediol
 Escherichia coli Succinyl-CoA-dependent pfladhEmdhacrAldhAndhsadgabDpuuEgabTsucCD, mutation of lpdA D354K, gltA R163L, overexpression of sucD, 4hbd, cat2, ald and adh 99 0.35 Fed-batch, glucose [22]
 Escherichia coli Modified Dahms pathway xylAyjhHyagE, overexpression of xylBCDX, kivd V461I and adh 12 Fed-batch, glucose and xylose [89]
2,3-Butanediol
 Saccharomyces cerevisiae S-Acetolactate-dependent ΔPDCs, overexpression of MTH1, cytoILV2, BsAlsD, and BDH1 100 Fed-batch, glucose and galactose [106]
1,3-Butanediol
 Escherichia coli Acetoacetyl-CoA-dependent Overexpression of phaA, phaB, and bld 15.7 0.18 Fed-batch, glucose [113]