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Table 2 Glycosyl residue composition of cell wall fractions from stem of P. deltoides WT, vector control, and PtGAUT12.1-OE plants

From: Working towards recalcitrance mechanisms: increased xylan and homogalacturonan production by overexpression of GAlactUronosylTransferase12 (GAUT12) causes increased recalcitrance and decreased growth in Populus

 

Glycosyl residue composition of cell wall fractions (mol% ± SE)

Ara

Rha

Fuc

Xyl

GlcA

GalA

Man

Gal

Glc

Ammonium oxalate

 WT

19.5 ± 0.8

5.1 ± 0.2

0.7 ± 0.02

8.4 ± 0.3

0.7 ± 0.01

23.6 ± 0.6

11.8 ± 0.7

4.5 ± 0.2

25.7 ± 1.3

 V Control-1

18.9 ± 0.9

4.8 ± 0.1

0.7 ± 0.03

8.5 ± 0.3

0.7 ± 0.01

23.4 ± 0.7

12.6 ± 0.6

4.1 ± 0.2

26.3 ± 1.2

 AB29.2

17.6 ± 0.9

5.3 ± 0.2

0.6 ± 0.02

10.2 ± 0.2*

0.7 ± 0.01

26.5 ± 0.8*

11.9 ± 0.4

5.1 ± 0.1*

22.5 ± 1.1*

 AB29.7

18.1 ± 0.5

5.6 ± 0.1*

0.6 ± 0.02

10.5 ± 0.3*

0.6 ± 0.01

27.4 ± 0.9*

12.1 ± 0.6

4.8 ± 0.2

20.2 ± 0.9*

 AB29.12

17.9 ± 0.6

5.4 ± 0.2

0.7 ± 0.03

10.7 ± 0.4**

0.7 ± 0.01

28.1 ± 0.5*

12.2 ± 0.5

4.7 ± 0.1

19.6 ± 1.1*

Sodium carbonate

 WT

11.3 ± 0.6

5.8 ± 0.2

0.3 ± 0.03

22.4 ± 0.5

1.6 ± 0.06

18.9 ± 0.5

15.1 ± 0.6

6.8 ± 0.2

17.8 ± 0.8

 V Control-1

11.4 ± 0.5

6.0 ± 0.3

0.2 ± 0.03

22.3 ± 0.5

1.3 ± 0.05

18.7 ± 0.6

15.3 ± 0.5

6.5 ± 0.3

18.3 ± 0.7

 AB29.2

8.3 ± 0.5*

5.1 ± 0.3

0.4 ± 0.04

26.3 ± 0.3*

2.3 ± 0.06

22.9 ± 0.4*

14.6 ± 0.4

5.2 ± 0.2*

14.9 ± 0.6*

 AB29.7

8.1 ± 0.4*

5.5 ± 0.2

0.3 ± 0.03

26.9 ± 0.4*

2.4 ± 0.05

23.6 ± 0.7*

14.1 ± 0.6

4.9 ± 0.2*

14.2 ± 0.7*

 AB29.12

7.8 ± 0.6*

5.4 ± 0.3

0.5 ± 0.02

27.6 ± 0.6*

2.5 ± 0.06

25.7 ± 0.6*

13.5 ± 0.5*

4.7 ± 0.3*

12.3 ± 0.8*

1 M KOH

 WT

0.3 ± 0.01

3.7 ± 0.1

0.2 ± 0.01

69.9 ± 1.3

8.7 ± 0.2

3.2 ± 0.1

5.9 ± 0.2

1.4 ± 0.08

6.7 ± 0.2

 V Control-1

0.2 ± 0.01

3.5 ± 0.1

0.2 ± 0.01

70.0 ± 1.5

8.7 ± 0.3

3.1 ± 0.1

6.0 ± 0.3

1.6 ± 0.05

6.7 ± 0.4

 AB29.2

0.3 ± 0.02

1.1 ± 0.1*

0.3 ± 0.01

79.8 ± 2.1*

9.9 ± 0.1*

3.6 ± 0.05*

2.3 ± 0.3*

0.9 ± 0.06**

1.8 ± 0.3**

 AB29.7

0.2 ± 0.01

1.2 ± 0.3*

0.2 ± 0.01

81.1 ± 2.7*

9.9 ± 0.2*

3.7 ± 0.06*

1.1 ± 0.2*

0.6 ± 0.09**

2.0 ± 0.4**

 AB29.12

0.2 ± 0.01

0.7 ± 0.3*

0.1 ± 0.01

82.2 ± 2.2**

10.0 ± 0.2*

3.9 ± 0.06**

1.2 ± 0.4*

0.2 ± 0.06**

1.5 ± 0.5**

4 M KOH

 WT

2.1 ± 0.09

3.2 ± 0.1

0.3 ± 0.02

39.1 ± 1.4

4.7 ± 0.2

0.9 ± 0.03

10.8 ± 0.5

6.6 ± 0.2

32.3 ± 1.6

 V Control-1

2.1 ± 0.03

3.1 ± 0.1

0.4 ± 0.02

39.0 ± 1.1

4.8 ± 0.1

0.9 ± 0.03

11.0 ± 0.3

6.9 ± 0.3

31.8 ± 1.7

 AB29.2

2.2 ± 0.06

3.6 ± 0.08

0.5 ± 0.02

46.7 ± 1.3*

5.7 ± 0.2*

1.2 ± 0.05*

10.5 ± 0.6**

4.9 ± 0.4

24.7 ± 1.5*

 AB29.7

1.8 ± 0.05

3.4 ± 0.1

0.4 ± 0.01

44.3 ± 1.1*

5.4 ± 0.1*

1.1 ± 0.03*

9.6 ± 0.3*

5.8 ± 0.6**

28.2 ± 1.4*

 AB29.12

2.0 ± 0.06

3.8 ± 0.09*

0.3 ± 0.01

49.8 ± 1.5**

6.1 ± 0.2*

1.2 ± 0.03**

8.7 ± 0.5**

4.8 ± 0.3*

23.3 ± 1.6**

Sodium chlorite

 WT

6.7 ± 0.3

3.9 ± 0.2

0.1 ± 0.01

11.6 ± 0.4

0.9 ± 0.03

7.8 ± 0.2

2.0 ± 0.04

11.7 ± 0.3

55.4 ± 1.5

 V Control-1

6.9 ± 0.4

4.1 ± 0.2

0.2 ± 0.01

11.4 ± 0.6

0.8 ± 0.04

6.9 ± 0.2

1.9 ± 0.06

11.8 ± 0.4

56.0 ± 1.4

 AB29.2

5.8 ± 0.4*

5.1 ± 0.1*

14.5 ± 0.4*

1.1 ± 0.03

8.9 ± 0.2*

1.7 ± 0.08*

11.6 ± 0.5

51.3 ± 1.1

 AB29.7

6.1 ± 0.2*

4.3 ± 0.1*

13.3 ± 0.3*

1.0 ± 0.02

8.6 ± 0.1*

1.5 ± 0.09*

12.3 ± 0.4

52.9 ± 1.3

 AB29.12

6.2 ± 0.3*

5.0 ± 0.2*

15.4 ± 0.5**

1.3 ± 0.05

10.1 ± 0.3*

1.4 ± 0.1**

11.1 ± 0.6

49.5 ± 0.9*

4 M KOH PC

 WT

0.9 ± 0.03

2.2 ± 0.06

0

66.4 ± 1.9

8.2 ± 0.3

2.1 ± 0.09

6.0 ± 0.2

4.7 ± 0.3

9.5 ± 0.6

 V Control-1

0.9 ± 0.05

2.3 ± 0.07

0

66.0 ± 2.6

8.1 ± 0.4

2.0 ± 0.10

5.9 ± 0.3

5.0 ± 0.3

9.8 ± 0.3

 AB29.2

1.0 ± 0.03

2.5 ± 0.06*

0

78.3 ± 1.3*

9.6 ± 0.3*

2.7 ± 0.04*

1.9 ± 0.3**

1.3 ± 0.2*

2.7 ± 0.3**

 AB29.7

0.9 ± 0.04

2.4 ± 0.08*

0

75.1 ± 1.2*

9.4 ± 0.2*

2.5 ± 0.05*

3.5 ± 0.2*

1.6 ± 0.3**

4.6 ± 0.4*

 AB29.12

0.6 ± 0.06

2.3 ± 0.07

0

80.8 ± 1.5**

9.8 ± 0.4**

2.8 ± 0.07**

1.0 ± 0.4**

0.8 ± 0.2**

1.9 ± 0.2**

Insoluble

 WT

3.9 ± 0.3

2.8 ± 0.1

0.2 ± 0.02

14.9 ± 0.3

0.2 ± 0.03

3.0 ± 0.4

9.5 ± 0.3

5.6 ± 0.1

59.9 ± 0.9

 V Control-1

4.0 ± 0.1

3.1 ± 0.1

0.3 ± 0.03

15.3 ± 0.2

0.2 ± 0.04

2.9 ± 0.6

9.9 ± 0.2

5.4 ± 0.3

58.9 ± 0.8

 AB29.2

3.9 ± 0.3

3.5 ± 0.1**

0.2 ± 0.02

16.0 ± 0.4*

0.2 ± 0.02

4.9 ± 0.3**

5.9 ± 0.3**

1.8 ± 0.2**

63.6 ± 0.7

 AB29.7

3.8 ± 0.3

3.8 ± 0.09**

0.3 ± 0.02

16.4 ± 0.3*

0.3 ± 0.01

4.7 ± 0.5**

4.7 ± 0.4**

1.7 ± 0.3**

64.3 ± 0.6*

 AB29.12

3.8 ± 0.3

4.1 ± 0.1**

0.3 ± 0.03

17.0 ± 0.5*

0.2 ± 0.02

5.5 ± 0.4**

3.5 ± 0.4**

1.4 ± 0.2**

64.2 ± 0.7*

  1. Alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) was sequentially extracted using ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, 1 M KOH, 4 M KOH, sodium chlorite (chlorite), and 4 M KOH post-chlorite (PC). Each fraction was then analyzed by GC–MS of tetramethylsilane (TMS) derivatives. The amounts of sugar are average mol% of wall extracts ± SE of 3 biological and 2 technical replicates (n = 6). Italics numbers with stars are mutant values that are significantly different from WT at * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.001 significant level (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test). A dash indicates that the sugar level was below detection limits