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Table 2 Glycosyl residue composition of cell wall fractions from stem of P. deltoides WT, vector control, and PtGAUT12.1-OE plants

From: Working towards recalcitrance mechanisms: increased xylan and homogalacturonan production by overexpression of GAlactUronosylTransferase12 (GAUT12) causes increased recalcitrance and decreased growth in Populus

  Glycosyl residue composition of cell wall fractions (mol% ± SE)
Ara Rha Fuc Xyl GlcA GalA Man Gal Glc
Ammonium oxalate
 WT 19.5 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.02 8.4 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.01 23.6 ± 0.6 11.8 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.2 25.7 ± 1.3
 V Control-1 18.9 ± 0.9 4.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.03 8.5 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.01 23.4 ± 0.7 12.6 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.2 26.3 ± 1.2
 AB29.2 17.6 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.02 10.2 ± 0.2* 0.7 ± 0.01 26.5 ± 0.8* 11.9 ± 0.4 5.1 ± 0.1* 22.5 ± 1.1*
 AB29.7 18.1 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.1* 0.6 ± 0.02 10.5 ± 0.3* 0.6 ± 0.01 27.4 ± 0.9* 12.1 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.2 20.2 ± 0.9*
 AB29.12 17.9 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.03 10.7 ± 0.4** 0.7 ± 0.01 28.1 ± 0.5* 12.2 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.1 19.6 ± 1.1*
Sodium carbonate
 WT 11.3 ± 0.6 5.8 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.03 22.4 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.06 18.9 ± 0.5 15.1 ± 0.6 6.8 ± 0.2 17.8 ± 0.8
 V Control-1 11.4 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.03 22.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.05 18.7 ± 0.6 15.3 ± 0.5 6.5 ± 0.3 18.3 ± 0.7
 AB29.2 8.3 ± 0.5* 5.1 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.04 26.3 ± 0.3* 2.3 ± 0.06 22.9 ± 0.4* 14.6 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.2* 14.9 ± 0.6*
 AB29.7 8.1 ± 0.4* 5.5 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.03 26.9 ± 0.4* 2.4 ± 0.05 23.6 ± 0.7* 14.1 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.2* 14.2 ± 0.7*
 AB29.12 7.8 ± 0.6* 5.4 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.02 27.6 ± 0.6* 2.5 ± 0.06 25.7 ± 0.6* 13.5 ± 0.5* 4.7 ± 0.3* 12.3 ± 0.8*
1 M KOH
 WT 0.3 ± 0.01 3.7 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.01 69.9 ± 1.3 8.7 ± 0.2 3.2 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.08 6.7 ± 0.2
 V Control-1 0.2 ± 0.01 3.5 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.01 70.0 ± 1.5 8.7 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.1 6.0 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.05 6.7 ± 0.4
 AB29.2 0.3 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.1* 0.3 ± 0.01 79.8 ± 2.1* 9.9 ± 0.1* 3.6 ± 0.05* 2.3 ± 0.3* 0.9 ± 0.06** 1.8 ± 0.3**
 AB29.7 0.2 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.3* 0.2 ± 0.01 81.1 ± 2.7* 9.9 ± 0.2* 3.7 ± 0.06* 1.1 ± 0.2* 0.6 ± 0.09** 2.0 ± 0.4**
 AB29.12 0.2 ± 0.01 0.7 ± 0.3* 0.1 ± 0.01 82.2 ± 2.2** 10.0 ± 0.2* 3.9 ± 0.06** 1.2 ± 0.4* 0.2 ± 0.06** 1.5 ± 0.5**
4 M KOH
 WT 2.1 ± 0.09 3.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.02 39.1 ± 1.4 4.7 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.03 10.8 ± 0.5 6.6 ± 0.2 32.3 ± 1.6
 V Control-1 2.1 ± 0.03 3.1 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.02 39.0 ± 1.1 4.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.03 11.0 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.3 31.8 ± 1.7
 AB29.2 2.2 ± 0.06 3.6 ± 0.08 0.5 ± 0.02 46.7 ± 1.3* 5.7 ± 0.2* 1.2 ± 0.05* 10.5 ± 0.6** 4.9 ± 0.4 24.7 ± 1.5*
 AB29.7 1.8 ± 0.05 3.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.01 44.3 ± 1.1* 5.4 ± 0.1* 1.1 ± 0.03* 9.6 ± 0.3* 5.8 ± 0.6** 28.2 ± 1.4*
 AB29.12 2.0 ± 0.06 3.8 ± 0.09* 0.3 ± 0.01 49.8 ± 1.5** 6.1 ± 0.2* 1.2 ± 0.03** 8.7 ± 0.5** 4.8 ± 0.3* 23.3 ± 1.6**
Sodium chlorite
 WT 6.7 ± 0.3 3.9 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.01 11.6 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.03 7.8 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.04 11.7 ± 0.3 55.4 ± 1.5
 V Control-1 6.9 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.01 11.4 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.04 6.9 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.06 11.8 ± 0.4 56.0 ± 1.4
 AB29.2 5.8 ± 0.4* 5.1 ± 0.1* 14.5 ± 0.4* 1.1 ± 0.03 8.9 ± 0.2* 1.7 ± 0.08* 11.6 ± 0.5 51.3 ± 1.1
 AB29.7 6.1 ± 0.2* 4.3 ± 0.1* 13.3 ± 0.3* 1.0 ± 0.02 8.6 ± 0.1* 1.5 ± 0.09* 12.3 ± 0.4 52.9 ± 1.3
 AB29.12 6.2 ± 0.3* 5.0 ± 0.2* 15.4 ± 0.5** 1.3 ± 0.05 10.1 ± 0.3* 1.4 ± 0.1** 11.1 ± 0.6 49.5 ± 0.9*
4 M KOH PC
 WT 0.9 ± 0.03 2.2 ± 0.06 0 66.4 ± 1.9 8.2 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.09 6.0 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 0.3 9.5 ± 0.6
 V Control-1 0.9 ± 0.05 2.3 ± 0.07 0 66.0 ± 2.6 8.1 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.10 5.9 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 0.3
 AB29.2 1.0 ± 0.03 2.5 ± 0.06* 0 78.3 ± 1.3* 9.6 ± 0.3* 2.7 ± 0.04* 1.9 ± 0.3** 1.3 ± 0.2* 2.7 ± 0.3**
 AB29.7 0.9 ± 0.04 2.4 ± 0.08* 0 75.1 ± 1.2* 9.4 ± 0.2* 2.5 ± 0.05* 3.5 ± 0.2* 1.6 ± 0.3** 4.6 ± 0.4*
 AB29.12 0.6 ± 0.06 2.3 ± 0.07 0 80.8 ± 1.5** 9.8 ± 0.4** 2.8 ± 0.07** 1.0 ± 0.4** 0.8 ± 0.2** 1.9 ± 0.2**
Insoluble
 WT 3.9 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.02 14.9 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.03 3.0 ± 0.4 9.5 ± 0.3 5.6 ± 0.1 59.9 ± 0.9
 V Control-1 4.0 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.03 15.3 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.04 2.9 ± 0.6 9.9 ± 0.2 5.4 ± 0.3 58.9 ± 0.8
 AB29.2 3.9 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.1** 0.2 ± 0.02 16.0 ± 0.4* 0.2 ± 0.02 4.9 ± 0.3** 5.9 ± 0.3** 1.8 ± 0.2** 63.6 ± 0.7
 AB29.7 3.8 ± 0.3 3.8 ± 0.09** 0.3 ± 0.02 16.4 ± 0.3* 0.3 ± 0.01 4.7 ± 0.5** 4.7 ± 0.4** 1.7 ± 0.3** 64.3 ± 0.6*
 AB29.12 3.8 ± 0.3 4.1 ± 0.1** 0.3 ± 0.03 17.0 ± 0.5* 0.2 ± 0.02 5.5 ± 0.4** 3.5 ± 0.4** 1.4 ± 0.2** 64.2 ± 0.7*
  1. Alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) was sequentially extracted using ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, 1 M KOH, 4 M KOH, sodium chlorite (chlorite), and 4 M KOH post-chlorite (PC). Each fraction was then analyzed by GC–MS of tetramethylsilane (TMS) derivatives. The amounts of sugar are average mol% of wall extracts ± SE of 3 biological and 2 technical replicates (n = 6). Italics numbers with stars are mutant values that are significantly different from WT at * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.001 significant level (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test). A dash indicates that the sugar level was below detection limits