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Table 3 Aggregated mass and energy inputs and outputs for the bio-refinery units.

From: Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products

Feedstock preparation and pretreatment Enzymatic hydrolysis Fermentation and upgrading, pyrolysis unit and lignosulfonate concentration Wastewater treatment  Boiler
Inputs (kg h −1 ) 450,018.2 Inputs (kg h −1 ) 404,513.7 Inputs (kg h −1 ) 737,715.3 Inputs (kg h −1 ) 556,326.6 Inputs (kg h −1 ) 342,686.6
Forest residual 91,372.9 Pretreated pulp 65,507.8 Hydrolysate 69,662.7 Fermentation residual stillage 8308.0 Hog fuel 31,297.9
Sulfur 2993.7 Corn steep liquor 199.6 Spent sulfite liquor 24,604.7 Spent sulfite liquor condensate 1886.0 Forest residual fines 8223.6
Calcium carbonate 2948.4 Glucose 3401.9 Proprietary inputs [41] 29,057.1 Chemicals 43.6 Pyrolysis vapors 28,503.7
Sodium hydroxide 113.4 Lime 471.7 Pyrolysis carrier gas 27,215.5 Watera 546,088.9   
Watera 60,920.9 NH3 136.1 Watera 587,175.3    Biogas 3527.6
Process waterb 291,669.0 SO2 18.1      Sludge 5681.5
   HTEC enzyme 263.1      Combustion air 27,215.5
   Watera 129,319.2      Watera 27,869.8
   Process water** 205,196.1      Steam condensate 210,367.1
Outputs (kg h −1 ) 450,022.5 Outputs (kg h −1 ) 404,514.4 Outputs (kg h −1 ) 737,715.1 Outputs (kg h −1 ) 556,326.1 Outputs (kg h −1 ) 342,686.7
Pretreated pulp 65,507.8 Hydrolysate 69,662.7 IPK 12,201.6 Waste water solids 11.1 Steam 210,367.1
Spent sulfite liquor 24,604.7 Saccharification vent 1711.7 Lignosulfonate 21,191.8 Biogas 3527.6 Waste 2421.8
Pretreatment combined vent 850.9 Watera 333,140.0 Activated carbon 6797.5 Sludge 5681.5 Emissions to air 102,028.0
Forest residual fines 8223.6    Fermentation residual stillage 8308.0 Emissions to air 1017.0 Watera 27,869.8
Watera 350,835.6    Spent sulfite liquor condensate 1886.0 Watera 25,207.4   
     Pyrolysis vapors 28,503.7 Recycling waterb 520,881.5   
     Emissions to air 16,104.3     
     Watera 642,722.2     
Energy inputs
Steam (kg h−1) 71,939.7 Steam (kg h−1) 444.5 Steam (kg h−1) 137,982.8 Steam (kg h−1) 0.0 Steam (kg h−1) 0.0
Electricity (MWh) 4.7 Electricity (MWh) 0.2 Electricity (MWh) 37.5 Electricity (MWh) 9.9 Electricity (MWh) 2.0
  1. aTotal water content of the inputs/outputs
  2. bProcess water added to the system (recycling water from wastewater treatment)