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Table 4 Comparative LCA results using system expansion and mass allocation (functional unit: 1 GJ)

From: Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products

Impact category Mass allocation System expansion Fossil
IPK (100% slash pile burn) IPK (50% slash pile burn) IPK (100% slash pile burn) IPK (50% slash pile burn Fossil fuel-based kerosene
Global warming, kg CO2 eq 26.00 27.41 29.13 34.00 86.05
Smog, kg O3 eq 7.42 9.57 3.57 11.03 10.03
Acidification, kg SO2 eq 0.39 0.47 0.59 0.88 0.42
Eutrophication, kg N eq 2.21E−02 2.59E−02 − 1.03E−01 − 9.02E−02 2.24E−02
Carcinogenics, CTUh − 1.25E−07 5.43E−08 − 6.02E−07 1.94E−08 1.22E−06
Non carcinogenics, CTUh 7.56E−06 7.56E−06 2.51E−05 2.51E−05 1.19E−05
Respiratory effects, kg PM2.5 eq − 1.72E−01 − 6.77E−02 − 6.45E−01 − 2.83E−01 8.54E−03
Ecotoxicity, CTUe 47.25 47.61 161.72 162.97 234.19