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Table 4 Elemental composition and functional groups based on the C1s peaks by XPS analysis

From: Effect of alkaline lignin modification on cellulase–lignin interactions and enzymatic saccharification yield

Samples Element composition (%) Surface chemical groups (%)
C O Na S/CL O/C ratio C–C/C–H (284.6, e V) C–O (286.6, e V) O–C=O (289, e V)
AL 78.14 21.86 / / 0.28 56.57 39.65 3.78
SL 61.75 26.62 7.17 4.46 (S) 0.43 38.29 7.29 2.45
OL 74.27 25.73 / / 0.35 52.58 39.84 7.58
CL 69.05 26.06 3.09 1.83 (CL) 0.38 54.90 33.13 11.98