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Fig. 3 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 3

From: Microalgae for the production of lipid and carotenoids: a review with focus on stress regulation and adaptation

Fig. 3

(This figure was modified from Jeong et al. [112])

Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) can be performed in the laboratory using three broad approaches. A Serial transfer can be performed in shake flasks with liquid medium where nutrients will not be limited, and an aliquot of the culture is transferred to a new flask with fresh medium for an additional round of growth at regular intervals. B Colony transfer is similar to serial transfer, but is performed on plates with solid medium. C A chemostat comprises a culture vessel in which the population grows under continuous agitation and aeration. Fresh medium is added into the vessel at a defined rate and culture broth is harvested continuously during the process. The figures a, b, and c illustrate the number of cells that grew during ALE the processes shown in A, B, and C, respectively

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