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Table 3 Major C. acetobutylicum biofilm proteins that have been reported as non-classically secreted proteins with potential moonlighting functions

From: Clostridium acetobutylicum grows vegetatively in a biofilm rich in heteropolysaccharides and cytoplasmic proteins

Intracellular function Moonlighting function
Chaperones
 Molecular chaperone groel Adhesin [33, 35,36,37]; bind mucin, invertase and fibronectin [38, 39]
 Molecular chaperone dnak Bind plasminogen and invertase [40,41,42]
 Heat shock protein grpe Not characterized [32, 39, 43]
 Molecular chaperone groes Not characterized [32, 43]
 Cold shock protein Not characterized [44, 45]
Protein synthesis and nucleic acid stability
 Elongation factor Tu (Ef-Tu) Attach to human cells, bind fibronectin and plasminogen [46,47,48,49]
 Trigger factor Not characterized [43, 44, 50, 51]
 Ribosomal protein L29 Not characterized [43, 45, 51]
 Ribosomal protein S15 Not characterized [52, 53]
 Ribosomal protein L7/L12 Not characterized [52, 54]
Central metabolism
 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Adhesin [55,56,57]; bind plasminogen, collagen, fibronectin and RNA [34, 58, 59]
 Triosephosphate isomerase Adhesin [33, 60]; bind plasminogen, laminin and fibronectin [61, 62]
 Alcohol dehydrogenase Bind plasminogen [63, 64]
 Pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase Adhesin [65, 66]
 Electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunit Not characterized [44, 50, 54]
 Acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (thiolase) Not characterized [44, 67]
 Rubrerythrin Not characterized [52, 68]
 Acyl carrier protein, ACP Not characterized [69, 70]