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Table 3 Effects of ancestral population covariates on phenotypic traits and their statistical significance (p, loglikelihood ratio test)

From: Genetic variation of biomass recalcitrance in a natural Salix viminalis (L.) population

Trait p Sweden (%) W Europe (%) E Europe (%) Russia (%)
Combined release (g/g) 0.043 − 2 + 7 − 3 + 1
Glucose release (g/g) 0.038 − 2 + 9 − 5 + 3
Xylose release (g/g) 0.059 − 2 + 5 − 2 − 1
Lignin S/G ratio 0.031 + 2 0 − 1 − 5
Plant fresh weight (kg) 0.044 + 12 − 10 − 3 + 15
Main shoot weight (g) 0.023 − 7 + 11 − 6 + 46
Main shoot diameter (cm) 0.024 − 1 + 5 − 4 + 18
Number of shoots 0.002 + 18 − 18 + 3 − 48
Wood density (kg/m3) 0.006 − 1 − 1 + 2 − 10
  1. The four detected population clusters originated roughly from Sweden, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia