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Table 1 Some compounds used as electron shuttles (ESs) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or biological anaerobic decolorization (BD)

From: Polyphenolic compounds as electron shuttles for sustainable energy utilization

Redox mediatorsa (ESs)Applied conditionbReferences
PhenazineMFC[7]
BD[16]
Neutral redBD[16]
Phenazine ethosulphateMFC[20]
Safranine-OMFC[20]
RiboflavinBD[16]
MFC[17]
Phenoxazine  
 Brilliant cresyl blue(s)MFC[20]
 GallocyanineMFC[20]
 ResorufinMFC[20]
 Azure AMFC and BD[21]
 Azure CMFC and BD[21]
 Methylene blueMFC[20]
 New methylene blueMFC[20]
 N,N-dimethyl-disulphonated thionineMFC[20]
 PhenothiazinoneMFC[20]
 ThionineMFC[20]
MFC and BD[21, 22]
 Toluidine blue-OMFC[20]
 Benzyl viologenBD[16]
MFC[20]
 Methyl viologenBD[16]
 ViologenMFC[7]
 Malachite greenMFC[22]
 2,6-DichlorophenolindophenolMFC[20]
 CobalamineMFC[7]
BD[16]
Quinones series  
 1,2-BenzoquinoneMFC and BD[23]
 DopamineMFC[17]
 EpinephrineMFC[17]
 1,4-BenzoquinoneBD[16]
MFC[24]
 NaphthoquinoneMFC[7]
BD[16]
BD[24]
BD[25]
 Alizarin brilliant blueMFC[20]
 AnthraquinoneMFC[7]
BD[16]
BD[24]
BD[25]
 2-AminophenolMFC and BD[26]
 1-Amino-2-naphtholMFC and BD[27]
 4-Amino-1-naphtholMFC and BD[27]
 Humic acidMFC[7]
  1. aRedox mediator (RM) is also electron-shuttle (ES)
  2. bBD and MFC denoted bio-decolorization and microbial fuel cell, respectively