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Table 1 Comparison of the characteristics of the fast, catalytic and HTL biocrudes

From: Potential yields and emission reductions of biojet fuels produced via hydrotreatment of biocrudes produced through direct thermochemical liquefaction

 UnitsTesting methodFast pyrolysis biocrudeCatalytic pyrolysis biocrudeHydrothermal liquefaction biocrude
Density @ 15 °Ckg/m3ASTM D4052119811631169.2a
Specific gravity 60/60F ASTM D40521.1971.164
Elemental analysis
 Cwt%ASTM D529144.164.670.4
 Hwt%ASTM D52917.57.37.44
 Nwt%ASTM D5291b0.1320.160.12
 SppmASTM D5453843601050c
 O (dry basis)wt%In-house Elementar35.616.514.5
Water content by Karl-Fisherwt%ASTM E20323.59.18.91
Heat of combustion (net)MJ/kgASTM D24016.3926.0927.40
Total acid number (TAN)mg KOH/gASTM D66412582.628.6
Kinematic viscosity at 40 °CcStASTM D44520.67236.4503.4d
Ash contentwt%ASTM D4820.0130.930.61
Pyrolysis solids contentwt%ASTM D75790.031.321.48
Flash point°CASTM D9350.5< 40.0Not detectedf
Pour point°CASTM D5460− 36− 633
Aromaticity by 13C NMR%ASTM D546142.963.960.9
Total carbonylmol/kgASTM E31464.53.2Not determined
  1. aDensity @ 28 °C, in-house (Helpyc)
  2. bASTM D5762
  3. cASTM D4294
  4. dKinematic viscosity at 80 °C
  5. epH at 21 °C, ASTM D1293C
  6. fNo flash was detected before the sample began to boil